Prédation intraguilde chez les Coccinellidae : développement d'un nouvel outil moléculaire
|Advisor:||Brodeur, Jacques; Heimpel, George|
|Abstract:||Understanding intraguild predation (IGP) between predators is of great interest for ecologists and biological control practitioners because its presence can, in some cases, impede biological control. Studies on IGP are usually realized under artificial environments, which may interfere with intraguild predation. This project focused on the study of IGP, in open field in soybean crop, between four species of ladybirds: Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata, Coleomegilla maculata lengi and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata. Those predator populations frequently engage in IGP and it can be an important cause of mortality. Principal goals of this study were to: i) develop molecular tools to detect and quantify in situ IGP; ii) establish relations between IGP and ecological factors; and iii) evaluate the impact of extraguild prey density and plant structure on IGP between ladybirds. DNA markers have been developed for four species of ladybirds to detect intraguild prey in the gut-content of near 1000 predators, sampled in three years. We established a mean rate of IGP of 35% between ladybird species. We applied a correction to those rates to compensate for differences in digestion rate between predators and prey of different species. Factors increasing the prevalence of IGP were: extraguild prey density, the ratio of predator:prey, developmental stage of the predator and seasonality. Finally, we evaluated the impact of extraguild prey density and plant structural complexity on IGP between H. axyridis and P. quatuordecimpunctata. IGP was principally modulated by extraguild prey density. This study shows the ubiquity of IGP among ladybird interactions and the understanding of principal factors regulating the intensity of IGP. This thesis supports the hypothesis that IGP, even if extremely frequent, did not always have a measurable impact on biological control and consideration of principal ecological factors modulating its intensity is important.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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