Modifications chimiques induites par le soudage du bois par rotation des goujons à haute vitesse
|Abstract:||Wood welding by high speed rotation is a technique that has been developed during the last five years. High-speed rotation-induced wood dowel welding, without any adhesive, is shown to rapidly yield wood joints of considerable strength. The welding process is based on mechanical friction created by the high speed rotation. This method has proven to be as effective as vibration welding process, causing a temperature favoring the softening of the main constituents, mainly amorphous zones of cells connecting the polymer material in the structure of wood, including lignin, but also hemicelluloses. This results in high densification of the bonded interface. The goal of this study was to analyze the chemical changes that occur during the rotational welding with dowels of two Canadian hardwood species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). Chemical analysis was performed using pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The study of the structural modification of wood after welding was conducted using DSC and XPS techniques. The differences in chemical composition of both wood species influence the effectiveness of the welding process. Increasing the temperature at the interface causes a higher degradation of hemicelluloses compared to cellulose and lignin. Lignin is softened in a certain range of temperature. The traditional chemical analysis methods were used in this work to determine the chemical compositions of sugar maple and yellow birch. The results show that the lignin content of the maple is higher than that of birch, while the amount of hemicelluloses is lower than that of birch. The contents of cellulose in both hardwood species are very similar. The results of chemical analysis may partly explain the results of mechanical tensile tests which demonstrate that the maple wood yields a better welding quality as opposed to the birch wood. The chemical changes was examined which occur during welding in rotation. The analyses performed separately on wood substrate (reference wood) and welded material by using pyrolysis-GC/MS, DSC and XPS techniques. It is shown that the differences in mechanical performances of the two welded woods are due mainly to the differences in original lignin structures as well as in the welding temperatures determined for the two wood species. The detailed analysis of compounds identified by Py-GC-MS, the ratios S/G and L/C have been discussed. The higher temperature welding found in cases of sugar maple might be responsible for a better miscibility of polymers of wood in the welding zone. This explains the greater presence of hemicellulose derivatives with the formation of a new lignin-polysaccharide complex (LCC) in the welded material.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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