Études des mécanismes de régulation de la transcription des gènes humains P21CIP1/WAF1, GPC3 (GLYPICAN 3) et AβPP (AMYLOID β-PRECURSOR PROTEIN)
|Advisor:||Drouin, Régen; Guérin, Sylvain|
|Abstract:||Gene transcription is the first step to the production of any given protein. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating gene expression, such as the binding of transcription factors to genes promoters, is essential to the understanding of biological functions and to develop new powerful therapies against many clinically documented pathologies. We investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of three human genes very differently expressed and involved in diverse pathologies in an attempt to reveal structurals and functionals differencies between these mechanisms. AβPP and p21 genes are both expressed in adult while GPC3 is only transcribed in a tissus specific manner before birth. The expression of the AβPP gene is also specific to tissue and its over-expression may be involved in Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. P21 gene is expressed in many types of cells and is strongly induced by DNA damage. Finally, we demonstrated that GPC3 is differently expressed in neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor. P21 : The characterization of the proximal promoter from the p21 gene in normal human proliferating fibroblasts revealed seven DNA-protein footprints of which one bears a perfect consensus sequence for the NFI family of transcription factors. EMSA, CHIP, anti-RNA and transient transfection of recombinant constructs analyses clearly demonstrated that NFI interact with the most proximal LMPCR footprint on the p21 promoter and functions as a repressor. Upon serum starvation, a change in the electrophoretic mobility of the NFI DNA-protein complex was observed that may contribute to the activation mechanistic of the p21 gene throughout cell senescence and differentiation. AβPP : We demonstrated that Sp1, like USF, recognizes an element in the human AβPP gene that is necessary for full promoter activity. In cellulo footprinting analysis revealed at least eight DNA-protein interactions including CTCF, USF and many Sp1 target sites. These results were further supported by EMSA and transient transfection analysis. GPC3 : The characterisation of the entire GPC3 gene promoter revealed 1) a particular DNA structure in the promoter and 2) eight large protected regions. The use of competitor oligos in EMSA experiments and super-shift assays showed that an NFY-type transcription factor (TF) may explain the GPC3 aberrant expression in SJNB-7.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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