Régulation de l'activité des facteurs de transcription induits par l'hypoxie
|Advisor:||Richard, Darren Edward|
|Abstract:||Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF) are decisive elements in the transcriptional regulation of numerous genes expressed in conditions of hypoxic stress. In addition to their roles in many physiological and cellular processes, HIF are also involved in diverse pathological situations. Obligate heterodimers composed of a constitutive β subunit and of an oxygen tension-regulated α subunit, these transcription factors are mainly regulated by the hydroxylation and subsequent degradation of the α subunit. In hypoxia, this degradation mechanism is inhibited, resulting in HIF complex formation and binding to specific DNA sequences. The work presented in this thesis aims to elucidate regulatory mechanisms involved in HIF activation during hypoxia or in normal oxygen conditions. In the Results section, you will find a study devoted to HIF activation by angiotensin II (Ang II) in vascular smooth muscle cells. Specifically, the role of receptor tyrosine kinase transactivation on HIF activation was evaluated along with a description of HIF-1’s role in smooth muscle cells biology. Next, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, BiPS, will be presented as a novel and potent HIF activator. This unexpected effect may have important implications for the use of this compound for its angiostatic potential in cancer treatment. In addition, BiPS and derivative molecules could also have strong therapeutic potential in ischemic diseases. Finally, you will find a section devoted to the study of a new transcriptional repressor of HIF complexes, the histone acetyltransferase bound to ORC-1, HBO1. Surprisingly, HBO1 represses the activity of HIF complexes by a mechanism independent of the availability of the α subunits, but dependent on a chromatin remodelling event. In conclusion, this thesis highlights new regulatory mechanisms responsible for HIF activation. Considering the important physiological roles of HIF complexes and their implications in the pathogenesis of different diseases, these studies increase the available knowledge concerning the biological functions of these complexes and could contribute to the development of more effective and safe therapeutic tools.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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