Caractérisation de la famille des protéines ABC et étude transcriptomique de la résistance à l'antimoine chez le parasite protozoaire Leishmania
|Abstract:||The parasite Leishmania is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality around the world. No effective vaccine is yet available against this parasite and treatment thus relies on chemotherapy. Few drugs are available and most of them are associated with limitations such as toxicity and high cost. Pentavalent antimonials have been used for decades in the treatment of leishmaniasis and remain the mainstay against all forms of Leishmania infections in most endemic regions. However, the efficacy of these compounds is compromised by the selection of resistant parasites that are now described on a frequent basis in several endemic regions. The mechanisms involved in antimony resistance are partly understood and have pinpointed the role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Moreover, drug resistance studies with different in vitro-selected mutants have suggested the presence of unidentified mechanisms involved in antimony resistance. The objectives of this thesis were i) to define the complete ABC protein family in Leishmania and to analaze their evolution by phylogenetic analyses, ii) to assess the role of the entire ABCC subfamily in antimony resistance, and iii) to take advantage of the availability of the Leishmania genome sequence to study the gene expression profile associated with an antimony resistance phenotype at the genomic level. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the magnitude of the ABC gene family in Leishmania, which seemed to have undergone gene duplication events following the divergence of the Leishmania lineage. Moreover, subcellular localization experiments indicated that the entire ABCC protein subfamily is located to intracellular compartments in Leishmania, and gene overexpression experiments revealed the involvement of two of these proteins in antimony resistance. Finally, a whole-genome transcriptomic study confirmed the involvement of MRPA in antimony resistance and revealed the recombination events associated with its amplification in the highly resistant L. infantum Sb2000.1 mutant. More importantly, the transcriptomic study revealed the presence of aneuploid chromosomes in at least two different antimony-resistant mutants and selection of a partial revertant strain allowed the observation of a good correlation between the antimony resistance levels and the copy number of the aneuploid chromosomes.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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