Évolution contemporaine et plasticité phénotypique chez le saumon atlantique sous la lunette du transcriptome.
|Advisor:||Bernatchez, Louis; Guderley, Helga|
|Abstract:||One of the main objectives of the work presented here was to study the molecular mechanisms of contemporary evolution in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using microarrays. The creation of salmon breeding lines through artificial selection is an example of contemporary evolution driven by human activities. Comparing the transcription levels of thousands of genes between farmed salmon, wild salmon and their hybrids allowed us to identify genes of which the transcription level showed heritable differences between these groups. The results inform us on the genetic mechanisms of parallel evolution and allow us to evaluate the extent of the genetic differences accumulated in only 25 to 35 years of artificial selection between wild and farmed salmon as well as the prevalence of additivity in the genetic control of gene transcription. These results also support the idea that measures to markedly reduce escapes of farmed salmon and their reproduction in the wild are urgently needed. In another study, estimating gene transcription level Qst and heritability for thousands of genes allowed us to apply a new method, the «transcriptome scan», to identify genes for which the genetic control of transcription is likely to have evolved in only 6 generations under the effect of directional selection in two Atlantic salmon sub-populations from rivière Ste-Marguerite. Another goal of this thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. Hence, the comparison of transcript levels from saprolegniosis-affected or healthy salmon juveniles allowed us to identify several potential actors of the immune response to this infection, including several genes coding for proteins of the acute-phase response. Finally, we compared the transcription levels of thousands of genes in the brains of socially dominant or subordinate salmon juveniles in absence or presence of rainbow trout (O. mykiss), which allowed us to identify several potential molecular actors in the plastic loss of social dominance hierarchies in salmon in presence of trout. This contributes to a better understanding of the relation between gene transcription and behavioural plasticity in the context of competitive interactions between invasive and native species.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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