Conservation de l'ours noir dans une aire protégée: le parc national de la Mauricie
|Advisor:||Raulier, Frédéric; Samson, Claude|
|Abstract:||Nature conservancy is the main goal of wilderness protected areas. Some conservation strategies, focused on concepts such as ecological integrity, ecosystem management, connectivity, buffer zones, or charismatic megafauna protection have been elaborated in the recent years to reach this goal. The American black bear is a good model to evaluate the efficiency of these conservation strategies since many factors can affect the demography of this species, such as hunting and trapping, habitat loss, and forest exploitation. The central question of my thesis is then the following: “Can a protected area such as La Mauricie National Park of Canada be able to maintain ecological integrity of a large mammal such as the American black bear?”. I used data from the long-term (1990-2005) monitoring of the black bear population in La Mauricie National Park of Canada. In the first chapter, I evaluated the influence of hunting and trapping in the periphery of the park, as well as the influence of poaching and nuisance kills on the survival of bears. Main results indicated that human-caused mortalities have a significant effect on this bear population. In the second chapter, I undertook a population viability analysis. The growth rates estimated with survival and reproduction data indicated that the number of females appears stable in the population, but that the number of males would decline if the population became isolated. In the third chapter, I emphasized the importance of accounting for sampling error in population viability analysis. Finally, in the fourth chapter, I determined the size of the greater ecosystem of La Mauricie National Park of Canada, based on the study of the movements of bears. The results of this thesis show the importance of the territory located outside of a protected area. In my opinion, we will not be able to achieve the long-term protection of the integrity of a bear population in a park of the size of La Mauricie National Park of Canada as long as conservation objectives, supported by the establishment of buffer zones around protected areas, are not integrated in a large-scale greater ecosystem management plan.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||16 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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