Déterminants hémodynamiques de l'hypertension pulmonaire et de la thromboembolie suite au remplacement valvulaire mitral : étude in-vitro sur un simulateur atrio-ventriculaire gauche et pulmonaire

Authors: Tanné, David
Advisor: Pibarot, Philippe; Rieu, Régis
Abstract: Mitral valve diseases induce left atrial pressure or volume overload. The resulting increase of left atrial pressure, in turn, leads to secondary abnormalities, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism. Therefore, the main goals of mitral valve replacement are to restore the valvular hemodynamics and to normalize the secondary abnormalities. The general objective of this thesis is to better understand the complex interactions between the valve substitute, the intra-atrial flow patterns, and the pulmonary circulation. We, therefore, developed a new in-vitro pulsed atrio-ventricular mock circulatory system to investigate these interactions. The setup is based on the perfect synchronization between the contractions and relaxations of the two cardiac cavities, which are mimicked by two silicone moulds. Two pumps, real time servo-controlled, allow the double rigid and synchronized activations of the moulds, and the control of left atrial and left ventricular volumes. A Windkessel model is used as the pulmonary circulation and a third pump mimick the right ventricular ejection. Pressure-volume curves of the cardiac cavities and aortic and pulmonary impedances, measured in-vitro, are totally concordant with the cardiac physiology, except the amplitude of the left atrial pressure which remains too elevated. The anatomical shape of the left atrial mould includes the four pulmonary veins and the left atrial appendage. This realistic geometry allows flow patterns very closed to those observed in-vivo. Their visualization is performed using multi-planes three components particle image velocimetry, associated with an automatic mask generation. Using a numerical approach, we investigated the impact of mitral prosthesis-patient mismatch on left atrial and pulmonary arterial pressures. The numerical model was used to validate the cut-off values of indexed effective orifice areas generally used to define the presence and the severity of prosthesis-patient mismatch in the clinical setting. With the use of the mock circulatory system, we showed that the effective orifice area of mitral prostheses may exhibit variations of ±30% during diastole, which contradicts the previous hypothesis stating that this variable remains constant during this period. Finally, we described the positive impact of the mechanical mitral prosthetic valve regurgitation on thrombogenesis, similarly to mitral insufficiency, to the expense of an increase of the pulmonary arterial pressure. The new knowledge and the new experimental setup presented in this thesis may prove to be useful to optimize the design of mitral prosthetic valves and the performance of mitral valve replacement.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2009
Open Access Date: 16 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/20714
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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