Caractérisation structurale et fonctionnelle d'oxyde nitrique synthases bactériennes
|Abstract:||The discovery of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in bacteria has raised many questions regarding the function nitric oxide (NO) might fulfill in prokaryotes. In mammals, NO is implicated in signal and stress events for which no equivalent functions exist in bacteria. In vitro studies have revealed that, like mammalian NOS (mNOS), bacterial NOS (bNOS) catalyze the hydroxylation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and release NO. In addition, it has been shown that the bNOS of Deinococcus radiodurans and Streptomyces turgidiscabies catalyse the nitrosation of tryptophanyl compounds. As of now these studies support the hypothesis that bNOS synthesize NO in a catalytic process similar to the one described for mNOS. However, these studies also indicated that the newly synthesized NO might be used to modify a molecule bound to the cofactor binding site. We proposed the investigation of the kinetic and structural properties of the bNOS of Bacillus subtilis (BsNOS) and Staphylococcus aureus (SaNOS) to probe the catalytic mechanism of bNOS, deepen our understanding of catalysis in NOS and explore the distinctive features of these new enzymes that might reveal their function. Our studies targeted the structure of the active site of SaNOS and BsNOS, the kinetics of formation and decay of the oxygenated complex of SaNOS, the interactions of the substrates with heme-bound ligands and the function of the cofactor in bNOS. Our results support the proposal that bNOS are able to catalyze the same biochemical reactions than those carried out by mNOS and bring new information that provide us with a better understanding of the mechanism of oxygen activation, a crucial step during catalysis. In addition the observation of some similarities between SaNOS, BsNOS and mNOS revealed conserved features in these enzymes that are important for the synthesis and function of the product. Notably the specificity of the interactions the two substrates make with the heme-bound ligands and the deformation of the heme molecule. Meanwhile structural differences related to the cofactor have been observed, and in addition to those observed in the other bNOS, point to a novel function for these enzymes.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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