Le virus herpes simplex de type 1 : résistance aux antiviraux et réponse inflammatoire cérébrale
|Abstract:||Herpes simplex virus (HSV) resistance to antiviral treatment is a real concern among immunocompromised population. Mutations localized in the thymidine kinase (TK) and/or the DNA polymerase (pol) genes are mainly responsible for those resistance issues. Thus, it is becoming important to increase knowledge in this area and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Also, HSV has this unique biological property to invade the nervous central system and causes encephalitis. During this type of infection, an important immunological process occurs. However, this inflammatory response is still very controversial and needs to be elucidated. The main objectives of this doctoral thesis consisted of: 1- the characterization of antiviral resistance and 2- the elucidation of the brain inflammatory response to HSV. The first part consisted in the development of an in vitro system allowing the characterization of several mutations in the TK and/or the DNA pol genes responsible for antiviral resistance and the elaboration of a new antiviral strategy. The second part was to characterize the inflammatory response following the induction of HSV-1 encephalitis in a mouse model and to develop an alternative immunomodulatory approache. Mutations localized in conserved and non-conserved regions of the TK are associated with ACV resistance. Hydroxyurea increases the activity of nucleoside (ACV) and nucleotide (CDV) analogues. A delayed glucocorticoid treatment is highly beneficial by decreasing the brain viral load as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the brain of infected mice. TNF- and IL-1permit the initiation of an innate immune response allowing a control of the viral replication and an efficient transition to the adaptive immune response required for viral clearance during HSV-1 encephalitis. A prophylactic treatment with a TLR3 agonist significantly increases the mean life expectancy and survival rate of mice infected with HSV-1 compared to non-treated mice. The experimental models developed during this Ph. D. allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance and of the brain inflammatory response to the HSV.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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