Écologie évolutive des populations d'arpenteuse de la pruche
|Advisor:||Bauce, Éric; Hébert, Christian|
|Abstract:||Inter-populations differences are rarely considered in the management of insect defoliators. Insect management is usually based on models produced from a single population reared in laboratory and which are afterward applied to all populations over the territory. The main objective of this thesis was to determine the level of local adaptation of the populations of one of the most important forest defoliator in Québec, the hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée)), along a latitudinal gradient. Since the beginning of 1990s, the hemlock looper is the insect defoliator that has damaged the largest area of coniferous forests in Québec. Nevertheless, the biology and the ecology of this important defoliator remain poorly know. Eleven populations collected across a latitudinal gradient (45 to 51oN) were reared under laboratory conditions on various host trees. Two ecotypes were identified: one in the South where larvae go through five instars and one in the North where they have only four instars. This fundamental difference has major consequences on population dynamics. Four instars ecotype shows shorter larval and pupal development, lighter pupae, lower fecundity, but larger egg size compared to the five instars ecotype. Within each ecotype, there are also differences across the latitudinal gradient. Populations are locally adapted to particular conditions of their region which suggest limited gene flow. Moreover, results demonstrate that populations across the latitudinal gradient are adapted to host trees available regionally. Thus, northern populations that evolved in a homogeneous environment that is dominated by boreal trees show local adaptations on these specific host trees. Local adaptation of females to exploit foliage of old balsam fir trees was also detected for the most northern population across the latitudinal gradient. This population originated from a region where old conifer trees are the main constituent of the environment. Our works suggest that major outbreaks of the hemlock looper were mainly localised in the same region (North) where the four instars ecotype evolved.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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