Effet de l'étomidate sur la production de cortisol chez les patients intubés pour traumatisme cranio-cérébral : une étude de cohorte prospective

Authors: Archambault, Patrick
Advisor: Dionne, ClermontLortie, GillesLeblanc, François
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Etomidate is one of the most frequently used anesthetic induction agents for intubating patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), although the clinical impacts of its adverse effects on adrenal function are debated. Therefore, it is important to assess the consequences of any adrenal suppression that could result from its use in patients with TBI. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine the risk and the length of relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) induced by etomidate in patients intubated for moderate and severe TBI. The secondary objective was to determine etomidate’s impact on mortality and morbidity. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Eligible participants were moderate to severe TBI victims aged 16 years and over, intubated and admitted to a tertiary neurosurgical reference center between August 2003 and November 2004. ACTH stimulation tests (250 mcg) were performed on participants 24, 48 and 168 hours after intubation. RAI was defined as an increased of serum cortisol one hour post ACTH (delta cortisol) of less than 248.4 nmol/L (9 mcg/dl). Logistic and linear regression models assessed the association between the exposure to etomidate and the risk of RAI. RESULTS: Of the 94 subjects eligible to participate, 40 underwent ACTH testing. Fifteen subjects received etomidate and 25 received other induction agents. At 24 hours, etomidate did not change the risk of RAI. However, etomidate decreased the delta cortisol (adjusted mean: 305.1 nmol/l, 95% CI [214.7-384.8] vs. 500.5 nmol/l, 95% CI [441.8-565.7], p=0.02). At 48 and 168 hours, this difference disappeared. For all eligible subjects (n=94), there was a non significant trend for increased mortality in the etomidate group (adjusted OR: 4.8, 95% CI [0.6-35.9]). Etomidate was however associated with a significant increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI [1.0-8.7]; p=0.04). The adjusted length of stay in the intensive care unit was not different (10.2 days for etomidate versus 10.8 days for the other agents). At discharge, the adjusted motor Functional Independence Measure score was significantly lower for subjects in the etomidate group (32 versus 56, p=0.002), but the adjusted cognitive score was not significantly different (35 versus 46, p=0.15). CONCLUSION: Etomidate decreases the adrenal response to an ACTH test up to 24 hours after a single dose used for the intubation of TBI victims. A large randomized controlled trial is needed to further assess its impact on morbidity and mortality.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2007
Open Access Date: 13 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/19722
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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