Rôle des probiotiques lors d'infections entériques d'origine bactérienne et virale : analyses in vitro et études in vivo chez des modèles murins

Authors: Gagnon, Mélanie
Advisor: Fliss, IsmaïlDarveau, André
Abstract: For decades, the use of certain lactic acid bacteria as so-called probiotics has been suggested in order to stabilize the intestinal microbiota and thus prevent or treat enteric infections. Consumption of these bacteria, which are normal components of human intestinal microbiota, is reputed to be beneficial to health. However, their possible role as therapeutic or prophylactic agents has been studied very little. Five probiotic bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of newborn infants were first selected and characterized. Among these, a strain of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum (called RBL71) demonstrating strong resistance to the conditions prevailing in the digestive tract, strong adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibition of the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (50%) to Caco-2 cells was administered via the oral route to BALB/c mice. Mice thus treated before challenge had reduced fecal counts of E. coli O157:H7 and less intestinal histological damage than the control group. Greater production of O157:H7-specific antibody was detected in mice receiving the probiotic. In a second study, the effectiveness of three other strains of bifidobacteria against viral enteropathogens was examined. A strain of B. thermophilum (called RBL67) demonstrating the strongest inhibition (98%) of rotavirus attachment to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal cells was administered via the oral route to neonatal CD-1 mice infected with rotavirus. The viral concentration of the intestinal contents 48 hours after infection was significantly lower in the probiotic-treated group than in the control group. In addition, the diarrhea was of shorter duration and rotavirus-specific antibody production was detected in the mice receiving the probiotic before infection. These results suggest that strain RBL67 has a positive impact on the evolution of infections by invasive viral pathogens such as rotavirus and that strain RBL71 could thus have a role to play in the prevention or treatment of enteric infections by non-invasive bacterial pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7. In both cases, inhibition of adhesion of the pathogen seems to be a plausible mechanism of action. This demonstration of the activities of these new bifidobacterial strains of human origin against E. coli O157:H7 and rotavirus suggests their potential for interfering with the mechanism of infection of enteropathogens and supports their use in humans as possible agents for preventing enteric infections transmitted by the oral route.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2007
Open Access Date: 13 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/19707
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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