La régulation du métabolisme du glucose par la protéine tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1
|Abstract:||After binding to its receptor, insulin induces a reaction cascade that is essential for glucose utilization. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are affecting an increasing portion of the population and result from insulin signaling impairment. Insulin signaling pathways promoting glucose utilization are reviewed in the introduction of the thesis, as well the desensitization mechanisms which are crucial to limit insulin signal duration and intensity. Viable motheaten (mev) mice, harboring a spontaneous mutation leading to SHP-1 activity deficiency, allowed us to demonstrate in chapter I that SHP-1 constitutes one of these desensitization mechanisms. Indeed, mev mice showed an increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as compared to wild type littermates, resulting from increased insulin signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. Moreover, we show that SHP-1 controls hepatic insulin clearance, which is important to control systemic insulin concentration and sensitivity. This first study thus establishes a novel role for SHP-1 in the regulation of insulin action and glucose homeostasis. Thereafter, it became primordial to describe cell autonomous mechanisms by which SHP-1 enhances insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle. In the second chapter, expression of DNSHP-1 using adenoviral gene transfer into Fao rat hepatoma cells indicates that decreased hepatic glucose production observed in mev mice is likely the result of enhanced glycogenesis rather than reduced gluconeogenesis. Finally, I show in the last chapter that DNSHP-1 expression in myocytes increased insulin signaling to Akt, and increased GLUT4 expression, the main insulin responsive glucose transporter. Together, our results clearly establish that SHP-1 is a new modulator of insulin action in liver and skeletal muscle. SHP-1 may represent a novel therapeutic target to combat type 2 diabetes.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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