Le rôle des phosphodiestérases dans le follicule ovarien
|Advisor:||Richard, François; Sirard, Marc-André|
|Abstract:||Cyclic nucleotides are of paramount importance in diverse aspects of the physiological functions of the ovarian follicle. These secondary messengers are the intracellular intermediates of extracellular signals transmitted by the central nervous system, other endocrine tissues and the ovary itself. The length and intensity of these signals are modulated by the members of the phosphodiesterases (PDE) family, that inactivate cyclic nucleotides by hydrolysing the phosphodiester bond linking the phosphate group to the 3’ position of the desoxyribose moiety. Although they share a common function, the 11 types of PDE are achieving the delicate interpretation of external signals by their spatio-temporal variations of their expression patterns, by their unique activity modulation mecanisms and unique intracellular targeting. To further understand the modulation of cyclic nucleotides-mediated signals in the ovarian follicle, the functional characterization of PDE in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) was carried out in a well defined in vitro maturation (IVM) system. First, the PDE expressed in the oocyte were characterized to illustrate their potential role in 3’5’ cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) degradation during IVM. Nearly all cAMP degradation activity present in the oocyte was attributed to PDE3A, although no variation was measured during IVM. By delaying PDE3-specific inhibitor addition to the media, an oocyte meiotic resumption commitment period was determined from 15 to 21 hours. It has also demonstrated that PDE3A could be implicated in protein phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor-stimulated meiosis progression. These results have allowed us to precise the role of PDE3A in modulating cAMP in porcine oocyte during IVM. However, the absence of PDE3A activity variation in the oocyte during IVM has led us to believe to an active participation of the cumulus cells in the modulation of cAMP in the period preceding oocyte meiotic resumption. Second, the characterization of PDE in cumulus cells during IVM was undertaken. Our results demonstrate that PDE3A undergoes an upregulation after the first 10 hours of IVM, which is 5 hours before oocyte meiotic resumption commitment. Moreover, this upregulation was dependant of pregnant mare serum gonadotropins. The upregulation was also mimicked by cAMP-stimulation agents forskolin and prostaglandin E2 and has been inhibited by a cAMP-dependant protein kinase (PKA). These results suggest the presence of an autoregulatory loop of cAMP in cumulus cells that is activated following the stimulation of the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway during IVM. Third, intercellular communication between the cells of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) during IVM was studied to improve our understanding of the influence that the two cell types exert on each other. Gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication is increased in the COC by a gonadotropins-independent connexin 43 (Cx43) upregulation that is triggered by the rupture between cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells. After a sustained high level of communication, it dramatically drops simultaneously with oocyte meiotic resumption between 18 and 22 hours. This communication breakdown is stimulated by gonadotropins and accompanied by Cx43 recruitment to membrane lipid raft microdomains Finally, the degradation activity of 3’5’ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was studied in the COC during IVM. Our results revealed that a cGMP-hydrolysing PDE is present in the COC and it is sensitive to zaprinast and sildenafil, two PDE5- and PDE6-specific inhibitors. This activity was increased after 24 hours of IVM and remained high up to 48 hours. In conclusion, our studies have demonstrated a PDE profile and intercellular communication variations in the COC that is unique to the pig. This portrait brings further the edge of our fundamental knowledge of cyclic nucleotides modulation and transit during IVM. A better control of cyclic nucleotides during IVM could allow the improvement of assisted reproduction technologies and their efficacy in domestic mammals.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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