Dynamique des échanges de dioxyde de carbone de la pessière noire boréale de l'est du Canada
|Abstract:||Carbon dioxide emissions from human activities are changing the Earth’s climate. The boreal forest contains enormous carbon (C) stocks and hence it plays a critical role in the global C cycle. Black spruce ecosystems are the dominant cover type in the North American boreal forest, thus it is necessary to understand their response to both climate variability and to ecological disturbances such as forest harvest so as to identify the factors influencing C exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The first research chapter (Chap. 3) of this thesis presents a comparison of C exchange for three old black spruce ecosystems located in different regions of Canada. This study showed that warmer soil under deeper snowpack in winter and low light levels in June at the eastern Canada site, which are common conditions in that region, reduced C sequestration relative to that of similar ecosystems in central Canada. Furthermore, a general parameterization at a monthly time resolution was sufficient for characterizing the physiological response of all three black spruce ecosystems to environmental conditions. In the second research chapter (Chap. 4), the C balance and the response of C exchange to environmental conditions of a mature and a recently harvested black spruce site in eastern Canada were quantified. The C balance of these black spruce ecosystems was more affected by their respective developmental stage than by inter-annual climate variability. The response of C exchange to environmental factors showed a greater between- and within-year variability at the harvested site due to the dynamic structure of the vegetation. The third research chapter (Chap. 5) examined forest floor C exchange for a mature black spruce site in eastern Canada measured on different microsites. Soil respiration and forest floor photosynthesis accounted for 76-88% and 16-17% of total ecosystem respiration photosynthesis, respectively. The observed differences of the response of soil respiration to environmental factors suggest that microsite can reflect the spatial variability of soil respiration. All three of these studies provide valuable information for parameterizing and modeling the response of boreal forests to climate variability and to ecological disturbance.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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