Étude du rôle du TGF-ß1 dans la pathogenèse de l'hypertension artérielle et de l'insuffisance rénale
|Abstract:||Hypertension in chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by exaggerated production of vasoconstrictors such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) and a reduction in vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction could lead to TGF-β1 overproduction, a cytokine with pro-fibrotic and hypertrophic properties. Our studies aimed at elucidating the interactions between the endothelium-derived factors in CRF. In a first study, we investigated the role of ET-1 in the rat remnant kidney model of CRF, using the ETA receptor antagonist ABT-627. One week after renal mass reduction, uremic rats receiving ABT-627 were compared with untreated uremic rats and sham-operated rats, during 6 weeks. At the end of the study, systolic blood pressure was elevated in uremic rats as compared to sham-operated animals. Uremic animals showed increased serum creatinine, proteinuria, ET-1 and TGF-β1 urinary excretion and renal TGF-β1 mRNA expression. In addition, ET-1 and TGF-β1 expression was increased in the vascular endothelium of thoracic aorta of uremic animals. However, ETB mRNA expression was reduced in the renal cortex of uremic animals. The renal histological damages were comprised of glomerulosclerosis, tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis, which was associated with increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. Treatment with ABT-627 attenuated the rise in systolic blood pressure and the renal damages, but did not prevent the progressive decline in renal function, the ET-1 and TGF-β1 overproduction nor the reduction in ETB receptor expression. Our results show that ET-1 is involved, at least in part, in the pathogenesis of hypertension and the renal injuries in uremic rats. However, ETA receptor blockade does not confer the anticipated cardiovascular and renal protection, suggesting the implication of other factors such as TGF-β1 and Ang II in this animal model of CRF. In a second study, we evaluated the involvement of TGF-β1 in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with renal insufficiency, in the same animal model. We compared the effects of the TGF-β1 neutralizing antibody 1D11 and the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. At the end of the study, systolic blood pressure was increased in uremic animals as compared to the controls. Uremic animals presented a significant increase in serum creatinin, proteinuria, expression of ET-1 in the vascular endothelium of thoracic aorta and renal cortex production of TGF-β1, as well as a reduction in creatinine clearance. They also showed obvious signs of cardiac hypertrophy. Treatment with the 1D11 antibody reduced the rise in systolic blood pressure without preventing the decline in renal function and cardiac hypertrophy nor the vascular ET-1 and renal TGF-β1 overexpression. In contrast, treatment with losartan normalized systolic blood pressure and proteinuria, prevented the cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated the vascular and renal ET-1 and TGF-β1 overexpression. Therefore, neutralization of TGF-β1 attenuates the rise in systolic blood pressure in uremic animal, without preventing the deterioration of renal function or the vascular and renal overexpression of ET-1 and TGF-β1. Based on these studies, the development of hypertension associated with the renal insufficiency in this experimental model is likely attributed to Ang II. The effects of Ang II may be mediated by ET-1 and TGF-β1, which appears to act in an independent manner.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||13 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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