Qualité et rendement en sciages selon les conditions de croissance des tiges d'épinette noire (Picea mariana Mill.)
|Advisor:||Cloutier, Alain; Zhang, S. Y.|
|Abstract:||The development of black spruce stands under various ecological conditions and the hierarchy of the trees according to various heigths in a stand (dominant (over story) or dominated (under story)) influence the stem form and increment (growth rate). Stems characteristics influence directly the volume and the quality of the products. Therefore, the objectives of this research were: (1) to evaluate the quality of the stems and the yield in sawing according to specific conditions of growth of the stands and the trees; (2) to build a suitable model which describes the relationships among stand density, trees growth conditions, trees growth on various sites, mechanical properties as well as wood quality and value. Trees (180) taken in two natural stands (1) Alno rugosae – Piceetum marianae which constitute a rich site, SI ≈ 11 m at 50 years (Tembec site) and (2) Ledo groenlandici – Piceetum marianae which is described as poor site, SI ≈ 6 m at 50 years (Norbord site) showing various characteristics (age, diameter, stem position) were studied. The proportion and frequency of the defects such as curves and taper were evaluated on the entire bole. Wood mechanical properties (MOE and MOR) and defects before and after drying were directly determined for each piece of lumber (1500). The space available to each tree to grow was quantified with a new index. The index of competition (IC), characterizes the competition a tree undergoes and enables comparisons with wood characteristics. The statistical analyses indeed showed thad the IC become the principal variable to explain the characteristics of the trees, the volume of harvested wood and the value fo the products. Thus, the methodology consisted to elaborate a coherent system of equations which adequately reflects the productivity according to these various properties. This research contributes both to the fields of forest management and wood technology. The results obtained indicate that the mechanical properties of the lumber obtained in the Norbord site are definitely higher compared to lumber obtained from the Tembec site. The average MOE for lumber of the Norbord site reaches 13,4 GPa compared to 11,2 GPa for wood coming from the Tembec site. Thus, the MOR is estimated to 64,3 MPa and 48,7 MPa respectively for the Norbord and Tembec sites. However, the total volume of the products in the Tembec site is 3,5 times higher than in the Norbord site : 43,0 m3/ha (18,2 Mpmp/ha) for Norbord and 150,5 m3/ha (63,8 Mpmp/ha) for Tembec. Consequently, the total value per hectare ($/ha) of wood collected on the territory of Tembec (16 012 $) represents threefold the value of the lumber of the other site (5 514 $) even if the price per unit volume is more advantageous for the lumber of Norbord.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||12 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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