Influence de la structure du bois sur ses propriétés physico-mécaniques à des teneurs en humidité élevées
|Abstract:||The main objective of this work is to improve the knowledge of the influence of the wood structure on its physical and mechanical properties. Three temperate and five tropical hardwoods were studied in order to have a high diversity of anatomical properties. Two experimental techniques (saturated salt solutions and pressure membrane method) were used to perform moisture sorption tests at 25ºC. These sorption tests were combined with physical and mechanical property measurements. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used in order to separate different components of water in wood during desorption. The porous structure of these hardwoods was characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and by quantitative anatomical analyses. The results showed that at equilibrium moisture content, radial, tangential and volumetric shrinkage, as well as changes in transverse strength, occur above the fiber saturation point (FSP). This result indicates that the loss of bound water takes place in the presence of liquid water. This remaining liquid water would be entrapped on the least permeable tissue elements (ray parenchyma). The initial equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at which bound water starts to be removed varied largely among wood species. The NMR results confirmed that, even at equilibrated conditions, a region exists where the loss of liquid water and bound water take place simultaneously. This region will vary according to the wood structure. Liquid water was present at EMC values lower than the fiber saturation point, which contradicts the concept of this point. At higher values of relative humidity the desorption curves largely varied among species. Quantitative anatomical and MIP results were useful to a better comprehension of the influence of wood structure on the wood - water relationships. Concerning the dimensional properties, a large variation of the shrinkage values was observed among the species studied. Temperate species had larger shrinkage values and the basic density was not correlated with shrinkage when temperate and tropical values were analyzed together. Finally, the present work gives information about fundamental aspects of wood – water relationships, which are important for a better utilization of this material.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||12 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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