Traduction des ARNM maternels d'ovocytes bovins impliqués dans le développement embryonnaire
|Advisor:||Sirard, Marc-André; Richard, François|
|Abstract:||During the growth and the maturation of the oocyte, organelles, proteins and mRNA known as maternal are stockpiled in order to prepare and supply material to the developing embryo in the main goal to activate the embryonic genome. An oocyte that is able to supply to this step is called developmental competent. The objective of the first experiment was to determine an embryos population with different level of developmental competence. The triple selection lies in two characters related to the oocyte, which are the follicular size and the morphology of the COC and one is related to the embryo, which is the time of first cleavage post insemination. The different population generated by this selection has provided a population highly competent to development and a population lacking developmental competence that will be useful for the study of developmental competence. The objective of the second experiment was the study of the proteomic of the translated maternal mRNA during the early embryo development. We wanted to know which proteins play the role of maternal housekeeping proteins during oocyte maturation and early embryo development. This experiment has clearly demonstrated that when the oocyte resume meiosis (Coenen et al., 2004) and after fertilization, the translated protein pattern follows a continuum events which conducts embryo to his activation. Although they are supply by the same reservoir of mRNA, the needs of the oocyte and the embryo are different. Only about fifty proteins are commonly translated during oocyte maturation and early development. Eleven of them have been identified: HSC71; HSP70; CypA (2 times); UCHL1; GSTM5; Cct5; E-FABP; 2,3-BPGM, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D3; and β- actin/γ-actin. The third experiment consists of the discovery of factors related to developmental competence. Three populations from the triple selection with high, low and developmental competence was compared by a proteomic study. This study has shown that developmental incompetent embryos translate a minimum of maternal mRNA, which the majority is the embryo housekeeping found in the previous study. Whereas high and low developmental iv competent embryos present shared and exclusive translated proteins, these proteins represent potential factors related to developmental competence. By trying to identify these proteins, we have found that most translated proteins are transient and are not accumulated in the cytoplasm. In spite of this observation, we have identified six proteins: cytosolic thiolase, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, peroxiredoxin 6, proteasome-α6, hypothetical protein My027 and thiamine triphosphatase. Two maternal housekeeping proteins were also missing for the incompetent 2-cell embryos: UCH-L1 and CypA. From these experiments, a new method of protein identification confirmation, called in silico confirmation, was developed. As the genome and the proteome of Bos taurus is limited, the protein identification was made in foreign species or from Bos taurus EST databases. This method as made possible to rebuilt the bos taurus messager, to translate the bovine protein, find his theoretical peptide mass fingerprint and compare it to the experimental spectrum and thus increase the number of matched peptides. In conclusion, the proteomic study on the developmental competence of the bovine oocyte has identified of a reduce number of candidates compared to genomic studies. A new method has been developed during this work. The in silico confirmation allowed the confirmation of protein identification without additional material.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||12 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
All documents in CorpusUL are protected by Copyright Act of Canada.