Effet de l'inhibition chronique de la synthèse du monoxyde d'azote sur la pression artérielle et l'apparition des dommages cardiovasculaires et rénaux chez le rat Harlan Sprague-Dawley
|Abstract:||Impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and increased angiotensin II sensitivity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with chronic renal failure. The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular and renal damages induced by chronic NO synthesis inhibition in Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (Hsd : SD) and the role of AngII. NO synthesis inhibition is induced by treatment with the L-arginine analogue, L-NAME (100 mg/kg/day), administered in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The role of AngII is evaluated with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (20 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study, L-NAME treated rats exhibited increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to control animals. They also showed increased serum creatinine and proteinuria indicating a decline in the renal function. These changes were associated with the development of glomerular ischemia, tubular atrophy and neointimal hypertrophy. L-NAME treated rats also exhibited increased expression of ET-1 and TGF-β1 in the vessels and the kidney. They also presented increased formation of superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the thoracic aorta. Treatment with losartan attenuated the increased in SBP, serum creatinine and proteinuria and prevented the glomerular, tubular and vascular damages observed in the kidney. Losartan also normalized vascular and renal expression of ET-1 and TGF-β1 and overproduction of ROS in the thoracic aorta. To determine the specific role of ET-1, TGF-β1 and ROS in L-NAME treated rats, we administered respectively an ETA receptor antagonist (LU135252), a monoclonal antibody neutralizing TGF-β (1D11) and an antioxidant (α-lipoic acid). The effect of these treatments on SBP, serum creatinine, proteinuria and cardiovascular and renal damages was evaluated after 3 weeks. Despite increased level of vascular and renal expression of ET-1, TGF-β and ROS in L-NAME treated rats, treatment with LU135252, the monoclonal antibody 1D11 and the antioxidant α-lipoic acid taken each alone had no effect on the elevation of SBP, serum creatinine, proteinuria and cardiovascular and renal damages. In a second study, we evaluated the effect of different degrees of NO synthesis inhibition on hypertension and cardiovascular and renal damages in Hsd : SD rats and the implication of AngII. Chronic NO synthesis inhibition is induced by treatment with L-NAME at different doses (100, 30, 5 mg/kg/day). The role of AngII is evaluated with losartan (20 mg/kg/day). The effect of these treatments on urinary nitrates/nitrites, SBP, serum creatinine, proteinuria and vascular and renal damages are evaluated after 3, 4 and 12 weeks. The different L-NAME doses decreased urinary nitrates/nitrites by 95%, 91% and 80% as compared to control animals. L-NAME at a dose of 100 and 30 mg/kg/day increased SBP (p< 0.01), serum creatinine and proteinuria within 3-4 weeks. These animals showed renal ischemic lesions associated with myointimal proliferation and lumen obstruction. At a dose of 5 mg/kg/day of L-NAME, SBP increased moderately (p< 0.01) and cardiovascular and renal damages appeared later (week 12). Treatment with losartan attenuated the increased in SBP, serum creatinine, proteinuria and cardiovascular and renal damages at all doses of L-NAME utilized. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the importance of basal NO release in the maintain of endothelial function. In fact, chronic NO synthesis inhibition in Hsd : SD rats cause severe hypertension and cardiovascular and renal damages which depend on the degree of inhibition. These pathological effects are caused, in part, by the action of AngII which can modulate the production of ET-1, TGF-β and ROS. However, the individual blockade of these factors do not attenuate the elevation of SBP, serum creatinine, proteinuria and the apparition of cardiovascular and renal damages caused by chronic NOS inhibition at a high dose (100 mg/kg/day). Finally, these results demonstrate a close relationship between NO and AngII in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular and renal damages.|
|Document Type:||Mémoire de maîtrise|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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