Détection de carences nutritives par fluorescence active et spectrométrie
|Advisor:||Viau, Alain; Samson, Guy|
|Abstract:||Nutrient deficiencies are responsible for significant reductions of crop growth and yields. In order to reduce their negative impacts, it is important to detect those deficiencies as early as possible. Current methods include plant material collection and chemical analyses that may not provide deficiency detection within the time-window necessary for plant response to recovery fertilization. Reflectance and fluorescence are two methods associated with remote sensing. In this research project we evaluated the potential of reflectance and fluorescence to detect nutrient deficiencies in crops. To do so, we induced three nutrient deficiencies (N, K, Mg) on potato plants. The nitrogen deficiency significantly reduced crop growth contrary to K or Mg deficiencies. The potential of reflectance and fluorescence to detect nutrient deficiencies was related to growth reduction and it was easier to detect nitrogen deficiency than magnesium or potassium deficiencies. We also developed a nitrogen imbalance indicator based on the computation of the compositional nutrient diagnosis (CND). This indicator corresponds to a canonical variable including information coming from 24 reflectance and fluorescence indices. It allowed the detection of nearly 70% of nitrogen-imbalanced plants. Moreover, we also evaluated the impact of the angle of view and of veins density on the detection of nutrient deficiencies using fluorescence. The detection of nitrogen deficiencies was improved when the fluorometer was inclined and faced older leaves or leaves having a lower density of veins. The research project confirmed the potential of reflectance and fluorescence for the detection of nutrient deficiencies; it introduced a new nitrogen imbalance index integrating CND and remote sensing data; and it determined that a near-nadir angle of view was not well-suited for the detection of some specific nutrient deficiencies. This research project will help to improve crop yield in a sustainable management context.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
All documents in CorpusUL are protected by Copyright Act of Canada.