Étude du mécanisme d'incorporation sélective de l'ICAM-1 par le VIH-1 et évaluation de la sensibilité de virions porteurs d'ICAM-1 à l'action inhibitrice du T-20
|Advisor:||Tremblay, Michel J.|
|Abstract:||INTRODUCTION Previous works have indicated that incorporation of surface glycoprotein into retroviruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is not a highly specific process since several cellular glycoproteins can be inserted within the mature viral particle. The mechanism(s) that govern the acquisition of such host constituents have remained so far elusive. OBJECTIVES We have examined the molecular basis, associate to ICAM-1 localization and structural viral proteins responsible for the selective incorporation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 within HIV-1. We also investigated whether sensitivity to the newly developed fusion inhibitor T-20 is affected by incorporation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in HIV 1. METHODS We have first investigated the role played by the viral envelope (Env) of HIV-1 in the acquisition of host ICAM-1. The incorporation process of ICAM-1 was also investigated by using different ICAM-1 constructs in which both transmembranes and intracytoplasmic tails were modified. These investigations were performed in combination with virus capture and immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot, confocal microscopy analyses, and infectivity assays. We finally used laboratory isolates of HIV-1 (X4- and R5-tropic) either lacking or bearing ICAM-1 as well as clinical variants into infectivity tests to both evaluate their respective IC50 for the fusion inhibitor and to understand the mechanism of resistance bring by the presence of this host molecule. RESULTS Mutation in the matrix (MA) domain or on Env-deficient viruses produced either in immortalized or primary human cell lines does not affect the incorporation of ICAM-1 by HIV-1. However, the incorporation seems to be conducted by the cytosolic tail of ICAM-1. Further experiments suggested that there is an association – direct or indirect – between ICAM-1 and virus-encoded Pr55Gag. We also demonstrate that ICAM-1-bearing virions are more resistant to T-20 than isogenic HIV-1 particles lacking this host adhesion molecule probably based on a reduction of the kinetic window during which the viral envelope is sensitive to T-20. CONCLUSION This study represents the first demonstration that structural Gag polyproteins mediate the uptake of a host-derived cell surface constituent (ICAM-1) by interacting directly with its cytoplasmic domain or by interacting with a partner into the cytosol. This observation describes a new strategy by which HIV-1 can modulate its replicative cycle considering that insertion of ICAM-1 within nascent virions has been shown to affect virus life cycle and also the sensitivity to the newly develop class of inhibitor including T-20.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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