Études sur les composés polyphénoliques en relation avec l'alimentation de la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.))
|Abstract:||Host plant nutritive and allelochemical characteristics are important factors of forest insect defoliator population dynamics. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) is one of the most important lepidopteran forest pests of North America attacking especially balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.)) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees, two host tree species that contains polyphelonics which are believed to act as defensive chemicals against herbivores. Certain sylvicultural treatments such as stand thinning are among the variables that affect host tree foliar polyphenolics. Stand thinning of young balsam fir tree stands is known to decrease, the year following the treatment, host content in foliar tannin and to increase foliar nitrogen. These short term changes in host chemistry have already been related shown to increases in spruce budworm larval survival and development rates in field studies. However, the cause-effect relationship remains to be established. In the current study, effects of variations in balsam fir foliar tannin and nitrogen related to stand thinning were investigated on spruce budworm survival, growth, development and food utilization using purified tannins from host tree foliage and various sources of proteins incorporated into artificial diet. Results from this study support the hypothesis that changes in host tree tannin and nitrogen following thinning of young balsam fir stands are responsible for increases budworm survival and defoliation. Food utilization studies were also conducted using balsam fir foliage purified tannin extract incorporated into artificial diet in order to document the level of tolerance and plasticity of budworm larvae to foliar polyphenolic variations. Similar studies were conducted using white spruce foliage. In the case of balsam fir foliar tannins, it appears that the spruce budworm is negatively affected by these compounds as their concentration increases in host trees. The insect exhibited various types of compensatory feeding mechanisms that allowed it to partially deal with both balsam fir and white spruce tannins. Contrary to balsam fir, white spruce trees appear to contain an optimal amount of tannins above which the host tree does not produce any more gain more deleterious effect on the insect. An additional study that investigated the system of interactions white spruce tree tannin - Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) - spruce budworm was conducted using artificial diet supplemented with various concentrations of tannin and Btk purified toxin. Results indicate that alone in the diet, tannin and Btk toxin have deleterious effects on spruce budworm larvae. However, when these compounds are both present in the diet they antagonize each other such that their respective potency against the insect is reduced.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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