Influence de la densité de peuplement et de la hauteur dans l'arbre sur les propriétés physico-mécaniques du bois d'épinette noire (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.)
|Advisor:||Cloutier, Alain; Ruel, Jean-Claude; Zhang, S. Y.|
|Abstract:||Thirty-six black spruce trees were collected in the Chibougamau area, north of Québec City and assigned into three stand density groups according to their local stand density. The trees were cut into three logs of 2.7-m in length from which the upper 30-cm long bolt was sawn and used as the sampling material. The aim of the study was to determine the variations of the wood properties in relation to stand density at different sampling heights. These properties, considered as determinant for wood quality, are wood density, growth rate, shrinkage, mechanical properties and anatomical structure. Moreover, these anatomical, physical and mechanical properties were studied on the same sample in order to highlight the relations among them. X-ray densitometry and the WinCell software were used to determine wood density and the anatomical structure, for each growth ring, in order to obtain a radial profile in relation to cambial age. The microfibril angle was measured by the SilviScan technology at CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products Department, Australia, and the mechanical properties were determined by static bending on specimens taken from pith to bark. The results show a high radial variation of the main wood characteristics from pith to bark where some of them (ring area, maximum ring density, microfibril angle, modulus of elasticity) characterise the juvenile wood to mature wood transition. The results show that most of the significant variation of wood characteristics occurs with sampling height rather than with stand density, these variations being more important in juvenile wood. One observes that stand density has more impact on growth traits than on wood density traits. The study of the transition age from juvenile wood to mature wood calculated from the radial pattern of ring area and maximum ring density, highlights a significant effect of sampling height. This effect results in a reduction of the juvenile period from 17 to 12 years at the top of the tree. Nevertheless, the juvenile wood volume proportion seems to present little variation with sampling height. The effect of stand density on transition age is not significant but it seems that the proportion of juvenile wood is higher in the high stand density group. A statistical analysis by a mixed model showed a strong effect of microfibril angle and ring density on mechanical properties but no significant effect of ring width.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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