Contribution à l'étude du pouvoir immunomodulateur des bifidobactéries : analyse in vitro et étude ex vivo des mécanismes moléculaires impliqués
|Advisor:||Fliss, Ismaïl; Boutin, Yvan|
|Abstract:||Probiotic bifidobacteria are known to have beneficial effects on host health. One of the interesting properties of these bacteria is their capacity to modulate the host immune function. However, the mechanisms by which the bifidobacteria influence the immune response are not well known. This project aimed to evaluate the immunodulatory potential of some bifidobacterial strains isolated from newborn feces. We tried to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in immune response induced by cytoplasmic content, cell wall and exopolysaccharides from bifidobacteria. Three exopolysaccharide-producing fecal strains of bifidobacteria (B. thermoacidophilum RBL81, RBL82, and RBL64) and a commercial available strain (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12) were tested using mouse splenocytes. The results demonstrate that a high stimulation of cell proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production were induced by cell wall. In addition, a concomitant stimulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion was observed. The cytoplasmic content was also shown to be immunostimulating, but less than cell wall. However, the effects observed were dose or strain-species-dependent. B. lactis Bb12 was found to be significantly more immunostimulating than other bifidobacterial strains used. Partially fractionated peptides and acidic fraction from B. lactis Bb12 showed a low hydrophobicity and appeared heat stable and mitogenic. In contrast, no immunostimulating effects were induced by exopolysaccharides. The mitogenic properties of cell wall protein were then explored to develop specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab) able to detect bifidobacteria species in food. Common proteins were revealed in cell wall extracts from bifidobacteria (B. animalis, B. breve, B. longum, B. infantis, B. bifidum et B. pseudolongum). The proteins obtained were found to be immunonogenic in Balb/c mouse. Monoclonal antibodies (IgG) -anti-B. longum- produced cross-reacted with all bifidobacteria tested. The shared antigenicity shown by bifidobacteria was revealed by an epitope supported by a common protein of 58 kDa. This was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy observation, which showed the specific interaction of these antibodies with bifidobacterial cell wall proteins. The Mab produced was also shown to be sensitive (105 cfu/ml) and specific to members of the bifidobacterial genus. The Mab developed allowed detection of viable cells of bifidobacteria using immuno-culture test.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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