Développement et validation d'un nouveau modèle de fermentation colique in vitro avec cellules immobilisées
|Authors:||Cinquin, Cécile Françoise|
|Advisor:||Lacroix, Christophe; Fliss, Ismaïl|
|Abstract:||The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem playing a key role in human health. The intestinal microbiota establishment occurred during the first year of life. To stimulate bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in formula fed infants, infant formula could be supplemented with probiotics or prebiotics, food ingredient able to improve human health. This supplementation could provide to them a better protection against gastro-intestinal disorders, infections and allergic risks. In vivo studies are difficult to carry out in infants due to accessibility and ethic problems, then in vitro studies become important. Continuous fermentation systems display the closest conditions to those encountered in vivo. Different fermentation systems have been proposed, all are using free-cell cultures whereas in vivo bacteria are present in colon at planktonic and sessile states. To our knowledge only one in vitro model has been proposed to simulate infant colonic fermentation. The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro system with immobilized cells to simulate infant colonic ecosystem. First a feasibility study was done, we showed that a complex fecal microflora could be immobilized and the inoculum bacterial diversity was conserved in the ecosystem established in the fermentation system. The bacterial composition and metabolic activities of the microbiota reached an equilibrium specific to the fermentation conditions tested. These equilibriums were closed to those detected in vivo in infant colon. Then a three-stage chemostat using immobilized fecal bacteria was developed and validate to simulate simultaneously, proximal, transverse and distal infant colon conditions. This last in vitro colonic fermentation model was used to compared the effect of a well-known prebiotic (fructooligosaccharide) with an exopolysaccharide produced by L. rhamnosus RW-9595M on the infant colonic microbiota. The fructooligosaccharide used beneficially influenced the bacterial ecosystem whereas exopolysaccharide substrate did not seem to be metabolized by infant colonic microbiota. The main advantage of this system with immobilized cells is the great stability of the bacterial composition and metabolic activities of the microflora established in the model. For this, the in vitro colonic fermentation system with immobilized cells is a very efficient tool, easy to operate and reliable.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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