Synthèse et purification d'isomères conjugués des acides linoléique et ?-linolénique

Authors: Trottier, Jean-Pierre
Advisor: Angers, Paul; Garro Galvez, Juan Miguel
Abstract: Rumenic acid (RA; 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), a known conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), possesses anticarcinogenic and antiatherogenic properties and has a strong nutraceutical potential. Our research group recently demonstrated the occurrence of a conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) in milk fat, and for which we proposed rumelenic acid as a trivial name (RnA; 18:3 cis-9, trans-11, cis-15). In order to study physiological effects of RnA and in order to compare with those of RA, chemical synthesis of RA and RnA were developed. RA was prepared by direct dehydration of Castor oil (Ricinus communis) which contained 88,7 % of ricinoleic acid (RiOH : 18:2 cis-9, 12-OH). RiOH was first convert to a mesylate (RiOMs; 18:2 cis-9, 12-OMes). RiOMs was then eliminated by the nitrogen base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) to produce a CLA mixture comprising 74,9 % of RA. Molecular structures were determined by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) using a 120 m capillary column (BPX-70®). The method allowed synthesis of CLA directly as triglycerides from Castor oil. Experimental conditions and yield fully satisfied large scale conditions. RnA was prepared by the following procedure. α-Linolenic acid (LnA; 18:3 9-cis, 12-cis, 15-cis) was concentrated at 84,3 % from saponified linseed oil (LnA = 55,3 %). Urea complexation allowed separation of saturated fatty acids (16:0 et 18:0) and monoenes (18:1 cis-9, et 18:1 cis-11) in the adduct fraction (AF) from LnA and linoleic acid (LA) in the non adduct fraction (NAF). Alkali isomerization (1700C, 2h) of the concentrated LnA yield RnA at 24,6 % of purity. Molecular structures of CLnA were determined by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GG-MS). Purification of isomerised products was carried out by preparative chromatography using a reverse phase column (RP-18) and lead to production on a gram scale of RnA at 46,65 % purity. An isomer of LnA (18:3 cis-9, trans-13, cis-15), produced during alkali isomerization in a 1:1 ratio with RnA, limited purity of RnA of the resulting product at 50% for the purification method used. Both methods for preparation of RA and RnA and purification step of the latter will permit in vivo physiological studies of RnA.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2005
Open Access Date: 11 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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