Comparaison des teneurs en éléments minéraux et de la balance en cations-anions chez cinq graminées fourragères

Authors: Brassard, Hélène
Advisor: Allard, GuyBélanger, Gilles
Abstract: The consumption of forages containing a high proportion of cations by comparison with anions causes the blood alkalinisation of dry dairy cows which in turn decreases the blood Ca availability and increases the susceptibility of dry cows to hypocalcaemia. To prevent milk fever, a clinical symptom of hypocalcaemia, a prepartum ration with a low Dietary Cation-Anion Difference (DCAD) is essential to improve Ca homeostasis. The objectives of this project were to verify the effects of species, cultivars, cut numbers and geographical sites on the DCAD and the mineral concentration of five cool-season grass species grown in Quebec. Concentrations of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (Cl-, S2-, P3-) and the DCAD values were measured in different cultivars of smooth bromegrass, meadow bromegrass, orchardgrass, tall fescue, and timothy. Timothy distinguishes itself from other grass species because it has low K concentrations and low DCAD values in both spring growth and summer regrowth. The DCAD of timothy varied from 267 to 373 mEq kg-1 DM while that of orchardgrass varied from 367 to 774 mEq kg-1 DM according to cut number and the year of production. Timothy is therefore the best suited cool-season grass species for the production of forages for dry cows while orchardgrass should be avoided in prepartum diets because of the high risk of hypocalcaemia. These results reveal no significant difference in DCAD between cultivars. Furthermore, the small variations in mineral concentration were not sufficient to affect the DCAD. These results show that the effect of the cut number (spring growth and summer regrowth) is insignificant by comparison with the effect of the species. These results also suggest that the combined availability of K and Cl in soil is the main factor responsible for the differences in DCAD of grass forages between geographical sites. Therefore, to produce low DCAD forages in Quebec, Cl fertilisation of timothy grown on soils with low K content should be considered.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2005
Open Access Date: 11 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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