Genetic susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome
|Advisor:||Vohl, Marie-Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre|
|Abstract:||The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of interrelated cardiovascular risk factors co-occurring in the same individual. People with this syndrome are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, it is important to elucidate the genetic aetiology governing this trait in order to better comprehend its pathogenesis. In the present thesis, heritability and complex segregation analyses as well as candidate gene and genome-wide scan approaches have been applied to shed some lights on the genetic architecture of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components. A total of three candidate genes have been investigated including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ as well as phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). It has been shown that polymorphisms in both PPARα and PLTP genes are significantly associated with several indices of adiposity. In addition, significant gene-gene interactions have been observed between PPARα and PPARγ on glucose/insulin parameters. It has also been shown that the HDL2-cholesterol response to gemfibrozil therapy is modulated by the PPARα L162V polymorphism. Genome-wide linkage scans have been performed on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Many chromosome regions harbouring lipoprotein/lipid genes have been identified including 1q43, 11q13 q24, 15q26.1, and 19q13.32 for LDL-cholesterol, 12q14.1 for HDL-cholesterol, 2p14, 11p13, and 11q24.1 for triglycerides, 18q21.32 for LDL-apolipoprotein (apo) B, and 3p25.2 for apoAI. The genetic contribution of the variation in LDL peak particle diameter (LDL-PPD) has been also investigated. Overall, the results indicate: 1) that LDL-PPD strongly aggregates within families with heritability estimate above 50%; 2) the existence of a major gene effect affecting the phenotype; and 3) the presence of a major quantitative trait locus located on chromosome 17q. The apo H gene, a positional candidate gene, was then significantly associated with LDL-PPD, suggesting that this gene is responsible for the linkage signal observed on 17q. Finally, factor analyses have been used to construct a quantitative metabolic syndrome variable and a genome-wide linkage scan has been conducted to identify the genomic regions underlying this trait. A major quantitative trait locus has been observed on chromosome 15q suggesting a gene within this region contributing to the clustering of the metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes. Many of these findings must go through independent replication, while others produced new leads that deserve follow-up.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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