Modulation du système des endothélines et leur inhibition lors de l'embolie pulmonaire gazeuse : modèle chez le rat anesthésié

Authors: Verreault, Maïté
Advisor: Arsenault, MarieBattistini, Bruno
Abstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is caused by the physical obstruction and subsequent injuries to the pulmonary microvasculature. This pathology is associated with the liberation of vasoactive mediators, and with the development of arterial hypoxia and local and systemic respiratory disorders. Pulmonary air embolism (PAE) is caused by air bubbles’ infiltration into the systemic blood circulation, then into pulmonary blood circulation. Until now, no strategy has lead to a large-scale clinical use for the treatment of PAE. Thus, it becomes necessary to study the mechanisms of this pathology implicating various mediators, with the objective of developing an efficient treatment against the different hemodynamic disorders observed in PAE affected patients. Endothelins (ETs; ET-1, -2, -3) form a family of vasoconstrictor and bronchoconstrictor mediators. These three isopeptides are expressed and secreted by endothelial cells in the lung, but also by pulmonary and vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Both publications included in this thesis tend to demonstrate that the first mediators secreted following an acute PAE induction are part of the Endothelins family, especially Endothelin-1. The studies focussed on the pharmacological implication of this hypothesis by evaluating the efficiency of various molecules synthesized to block the action of the Endothelins system, and their interest for the treatment of PE. Studies presented in this work used an Endothelin receptor antagonist or an Endothelin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. These two blockers decreased the extent of cardio-respiratory disorders related to PAE, but did not prevent the systemic circulatory collapse observed shortly after the beginning of the induction of the pathology. With the idea of developing a pre-clinical experimental rat model more representative of the human pathology of acute PAE, some improvements have been made on the model previously developed by our laboratory.
Document Type: Mémoire de maîtrise
Issue Date: 2004
Open Access Date: 11 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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