Caractérisation des mutations du virus Herpès simplex impliquées dans la résistance aux antiviraux
|Abstract:||Drug resistant HSV isolates are responsible form substantial morbidity among immunocompromised subjects. The genetic basis for resistance to nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir (ACV) have been mapped to point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene while mutations within the viral DNA pol gene, the main target for all anti-herpetic drug actually available, could lead to a multidrug resistance phenotype. However, the distinction between viral mutations (TK and DNA pol) involved in antiviral resistance or part of viral polymorphism can be difficult to evaluate with current methodologies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research project is thus to evaluate the role of particular mutations within the HSV TK and DNA pol gene with regard to drug-resistance patterns and viral fitness, by designing new gene expression systems. METHODS: The protozoan parasite Leishmania stably transfected with a TK expression vector (pSP72αNEOα) was used as an heterologous system to evaluate the role of several different point mutations within the coding region of the TK gene in conferring resistance to nucleoside analogs. Susceptibility of TK-expressing parasites to nucleoside analogs can thus be tested very easily by a simple measurement of the optic density of cultures grown in the presence or in the absence of the drug. Finally, a set of overlapping viral cosmids and plasmids for the rapid generation of recombinant HSV-1 DNA pol mutants have been developed. RESULTS: Expression of the TK gene from ACV-susceptible clinical isolates resulted in Leishmania susceptibility to the antiviral, whereas expression of a TK gene with frameshift mutations or nucleotide substitutions from ACV-resistant isolates gave rise to parasites with high levels of antiviral resistance. Twenty HSV-1 recombinants with single or dual mutations within the DNA pol gene were successfully generated with the cosmid/plasmid based approach. Mutations within the central part of the enzyme’s catalytic domain (regions II and VI) were associated with resistance to ACV, FOS, and ADV, whereas mutations inserted within extremities (δ-region C, I, V, and VII) were mostly related to the replicative activity of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: Such new strategies provide an easy, reliable, and sensitive means of evaluating the functional role of viral mutations which should translate in improved management of drug-resistant HSV infections.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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