Effet des probiotiques sur l'induction et le maintien de la tolérance orale à la [bêta]-lactoglobuline chez la souris et étude de leurs mécanismes d'action
|Abstract:||Inducing oral tolerance to commonly allergenic food proteins is seen as a promising means to prevent food allergy in newborn population diagnosed as at risk of allergy. The intestinal microbiota has been shown to play a key role in oral tolerance development. Recently, a great interest has been focused on probiotic bacteria for their purported beneficial effects on human health but their effects on oral tolerance induction have been poorly investigated. The effect of three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 and Bifidobacterium lactis NCC362) has been investigated and oral tolerance to bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) has been better induced and maintained in mice mono-colonized with L. paracasei. B. lactis and L. paracasei might induce oral tolerance through the hydrolysis of BLG and releasing of peptides with modified immunological properties. L. paracasei enzymes mainly hydrolyze acidic BLG-derived peptides and release smaller ones, which suppress splenocyte proliferation, down-regulate IFN-γ and IL-4 production and up-regulate IL-10 secretion. In contrast, hydrolysis of acidic BLG-derived peptides by B. lactis enzymes releases peptides, which stimulate splenocyte proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-10 production and down-regulate IL-4. Moreover, the residual allergenicity of released peptides is significantly reduced after B. lactis hydrolysis. These results suggest that L. paracasei and B. lactis might promote oral tolerance by activating different cellular mechanisms: L. paracasei stimulating the active suppression pathway, whereas B. lactis stimulating T helper type 1 lymphocytes downregulating T helper type 2 lymphocytes, implicated in allergy. On the other side, neither L. paracasei nor B. lactis was shown to stimulate the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway while its implication in oral tolerance induction has been clearly demonstrated.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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