Calcul rapide de forces et de déformations mécaniques non-linéaires et visco-élastiques pour la simulation de chirurgie

Authors: Schwartz, Jean-Marc
Advisor: Laurendeau, Denis
Abstract: This work presents a method for the fast computation of mechanical deformations and forces for the simulation of surgical applications. Surgery simulation aims at providing physicians with tools allowing extensive training and precise planning of given interventions. The design of such simulation systems requires accurate geometrical and mechanical models of the organs of the human body, as well as fast computation algorithms suitable for real-time conditions. Most existing simulation systems use very simple mechanical models, based on the laws of linear elasticity. Numerous biomechanical results yet indicate that biological tissues exhibit much more complex behaviour, including important non-linear and visco-elastic effects. For this reason, we developed a method allowing the fast computation of mechanical deformations and forces including non-linear and visco-elastic effects. This method uses finite element theory and has been constructed as an extension of the so-called tensor-mass algorithm for linear elasticity. It consists in pre-computing a set of tensors depending on the geometrical and mechanical properties of each finite element, which are later combined in the simulation part itself. Our non-linear model does not assume any particular form of mechanical law, so that the proposed method is generic enough to be applied to a wide variety of behaviours and objects. Following the description of the algorithm, of its performances in terms of computation time, and of its numerical stability conditions, we show that this method allows to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of a biological soft tissue with good precision. As this project is part of a broader effort aiming more specifically at developing a simulation system for liver cryosurgery, we experimentally characterized the properties of liver in perforation by a biopsy needle. The non-linear and visco-elastic tensor-mass model constructed from experimental parameters succeeded in accurately reproducing the observed properties.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2003
Open Access Date: 11 April 2018
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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