Mise au point d'un inoculant biologique pour le blé irrigué du Mali
|Authors:||Babana, Amadou Hamadoun|
|Advisor:||Antoun, Hani; Cescas, Michel|
|Abstract:||Because of the high price of imported P-fertilizers in Mali, the Tilemsi rock phosphate (TRP) is a cheaper locally available P source alternative for farmers. In many areas regardless of its good physical and chemical characteristics, crops and particularly wheat showed very slow response to TRP. With the broad aim of biologically improving P uptake by wheat, in this work we describe the use of TRP solubilizing microorganisms in field inoculation trials. In 3 different Malian wheat cultivars, 4 to 12% of the rhizosphere microorganisms were able to dissolve TRP. Six bacterial and two fungal isolates were selected for their high P-solubilizing activity in solid and liquid media, and were tested in a field in Koygour (Diré) in 2000-2001. Two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger (C1) and Penicillium chrysogenum (C13) and Pseudomonas sp. (BR2) significantly increased plant heights after 60 days, and the fresh and dry matter yields and P-uptake after 90 days of growth. Field assays were performed in Koygour (Diré) in 2001-2002. Inoculation treatments included C1, C13, BR2, C1+BR2, C13BR2, and a control in the presence or absence of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices. P treatments included Tilemsi rock phosphate (TRP), phosphate biammoniacal (DAP) and an unfertilized control. The colonization of wheat root with AM was significantly higher following inoculation with G. intraradices, and when TRP was the P source used. The presence of Pseudomonas strain (BR2) improved root colonization by the AM fungus. In general, straw and grain yield improved significantly following inoculation with AM and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. The highest P concentration in wheat grain and straw was recorded in treatment including a combinaison of AM, BR2 and C1 in the presence of TRP.|
|Document Type:||Thèse de doctorat|
|Open Access Date:||11 April 2018|
|Collection:||Thèses et mémoires|
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