Rôle des légumineuses sur la fertilité des sols ferrugineux tropicaux des zones guinéenne et soudanienne du Burkina Faso

Authors: Bado, Boubié Vincent
Advisor: Cescas, Michel
Abstract: The N2-fixing-legume crops and local agro-mineral resources like rock phosphates (PR) or dolomite are some cheaper means to improve smallholder's system productivity. This research aims to evaluate the N contribution of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their impacts on the succeeding sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and cotton (Gossypium spp) yields. Isotopic dilution method was used for biological nitrogen measurement. Groundnut fixed 8 to 23 kg N ha-1 and the percentage of N derived from the atmosphere varied from 27 to 34 %. Cowpea fixed 50 to 115 kg N ha-1 and the percentage of N derived from the atmosphere varied from 52 to 56 %. Compared to the mineral NPK fertilizer alone, the legumes fixed more nitrogen from the atmosphere when PR, dolomite or manure were applied with mineral fertilizer. Compared to continuous sorghum, Legume-Sorghum rotations increased sol mineral nitrogen and N absorption by sorghum. Legume-Sorghum rotations increased sorghum grain yield from 60 to 300 % compared to continuous sorghum. The N fertilizer equivalencies of cowpea and groundnut were 25 and 35 kg N ha-1 respectively. At Kouaré, the soils of Fallow-Sorghum and Cowpea-Sorghum rotations provided more nitrogen to sorghum and increased fertilizer N use efficiency from 9 and 5 units respectively compared to continuous sorghum. At Farakô-Ba, the soils of Fallow-Sorghum, Groundnut-Cotton-Sorghum and Cotton-Groundnut-Sorghum rotations provided more nitrogen to sorghum and increased fertilizer N use efficiency from 13, 25 and 32 units respectively compared to continuous sorghum. Compared to the original soil, all rotations decreased soil organic carbon at Kouaré and Farakô-Ba from 52 to 56 % and from 29 to 34 % respectively. Groundnut decreased soil and sorghum roots infection by nematodes but cowpea increased nematode infection. The results showed that crop rotations with groundnut or cowpea increased N nutrition, N fertilizer use efficiency, leading to a better use of the small doses of fertilizers used by smallholder farmers. Legume crop, PN, dolomite and organic amendments are cheaper means to increase BNF, N nutrition and traditional system productivities.
Document Type: Thèse de doctorat
Issue Date: 2002
Open Access Date: 11 April 2018
Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/17788
Grantor: Université Laval
Collection:Thèses et mémoires

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