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Early benefits of bariatric surgery on subclinical cardiac function: Contribution of visceral fat mobilization

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W.B. Saunders Co.
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Aims: We explored the early effects of bariatric surgery on subclinical myocardial function in individuals with severe obesity and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m2] and preserved LV ejection fraction (≥50%) who underwent bariatric surgery (biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch [BPD-DS]) (Surgery group), 19 patients with severe obesity managed with usual care (Medical group), and 18 age and sex-matched non-obese controls (non-obese group) were included. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) was evaluated with echocardiography speckle tracking imaging. Abnormal myocardial function was defined as LV GLS <18%. Results: Age of the participants was 42 ± 11 years with a BMI of 48 ± 8 kg/m2 (mean ± standard deviation); 82% were female. The percentage of total weight loss at 6 months after bariatric surgery was 26.3 ± 5.2%. Proportions of hypertension (61 vs. 30%, P = 0.0005), dyslipidemia (42 vs. 5%, P = 0.0001) and type 2 diabetes (40 vs. 13%, P = 0.002) were reduced postoperatively. Before surgery, patients with obesity displayed abnormal subclinical myocardial function vs. non-obese controls (LV GLS, 16.3 ± 2.5 vs. 19.6 ± 1.7%, P <0.001). Six months after bariatric surgery, the subclinical myocardial function was comparable to nonobese (LV GLS, 18.2 ± 1.9 vs. 19.6 ± 1.7%, surgery vs. non-obese, P = NS). On the contrary, half of individuals with obesity managed medically worsened their myocardial function during the follow-up (P = 0.002). Improvement in subclinical myocardial function following bariatric surgery was associated with changes in abdominal visceral fat (r = 0.43, P < 0.05) and inflammatory markers (r = 0.45, P < 0.01), whereas no significant association was found with weight loss or change in insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) (P > 0.05). In a multivariate model, losing visceral fat mass was independently associated with improved subclinical myocardial function. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery was associated with significant improvement in the metabolic profile and in subclinical myocardial function. Early improvement in subclinical myocardial function following bariatric surgery was related to a greater mobilization of visceral fat depot, linked to global fat dysfunction and cardiometabolic morbidity.

Metabolism, clinical and experimental, Vol. 119, 1-10 (2021)
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Subclinical myocardial function , Left ventricular global longitudinal strain , Severe obesity , Bariatric surgery , Type 2 diabetes
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