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Coexistence of phases and the observability of random graphs

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American Physical Society
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In a recent Letter, Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 258701 (2012)] introduced the concept of observability transitions: the percolationlike emergence of a macroscopic observable component in graphs in which the state of a fraction of the nodes, and of their first neighbors, is monitored. We show how their concept of depth-L percolation—where the state of nodes up to a distance L of monitored nodes is known—can be mapped onto multitype random graphs, and use this mapping to exactly solve the observability problem for arbitrary L. We then demonstrate a nontrivial coexistence of an observable and of a nonobservable extensive component. This coexistence suggests that monitoring a macroscopic portion of a graph does not prevent a macroscopic event to occur unbeknown to the observer. We also show that real complex systems behave quite differently with regard to observability depending on whether they are geographically constrained or not.

Physical review. E, covering statistical, nonlinear, biological, and soft matter physics, Vol. 89 (2), (2014)
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article de recherche