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Quantitative PCR reveals the frequency and distribution of 3 indigenous yeast species across a range of specialty cheeses

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American Dairy Science Association
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Indigenous microorganisms are important components of the complex ecosystem of many dairy foods including cheeses, and they are potential contributors to the development of a specific cheese's sensory properties. Among these indigenous microorganisms are the yeasts Cyberlindnera jadinii, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Kazachstania servazzii, which were previously detected using traditional microbiological methods in both raw milk and some artisanal specialty cheeses produced in the province of Québec, Canada. However, their levels across different cheese varieties are unknown. A highly specific and sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed to quantitate these yeast species in a variety of specialty cheeses (bloomy-rind, washed-rind, and natural-rind cheeses from raw, thermized, and pasteurized milks). The specificity of the quantitative PCR assay was validated, and it showed no cross-amplification with 11 other fungal microorganisms usually found in bloomy-rind and washed-rind cheeses. Cyberlindnera jadinii and P. kudriavzevii were found in the majority of the cheeses analyzed (25 of 29 and 24 of 29 cheeses, respectively) in concentrations up to 104 to 108 gene copies/g in the cheese cores, which are considered oxygen-poor environments, and 101 to 104 gene copies/cm2 in the rind. However, their high abundance was not observed in the same samples. Whereas C. jadinii was present and dominant in all core and rind samples, P. kudriavzevii was mostly present in cheese cores. In contrast, K. servazzii was present in the rinds of only 2 cheeses, in concentrations ranging from 101 to 103 gene copies/cm2, and in 1 cheese core at 105 gene copies/g. Thus, in the ecosystems of specialty cheeses, indigenous yeasts are highly frequent but variable, with certain species selectively present in specific varieties. These results shed light on some indigenous yeasts that establish during the ripening of specialty cheeses.
Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 105 (11), 8677-8687 (2022)
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Cheese ecosystem , Indigenous yeast , Cyberlindnera jadinii , Pichia kudriavzevii , Kazachstania servazzii
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article de recherche