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Enquête sur l'expérience sportive d'athlètes canadien.ne.s : portrait des expériences vécues en sport par des athlètes trans

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The purpose of this research is to describe the sporting experience of Canadian trans athletes. First,an online questionnaire was sent out to the various sports managers at Canadian universities and colleges as well as through social networks, in order to reach a maximum of athletes between 18 and25 years old. 1728 athletes responded to the questionnaire, including 25 athletes who identify as trans.The responses from the questionnaires, varying between 11 and 25 respondents per question, shed light on some of the findings regarding the sporting experience of trans athletes in Canada towardsLGBT-phobia. First of all, almost half of the 20 respondents (45%, n = 9) claimed to reveal their genderidentity to all members of their sporting context, 40% (n = 8) of them revealed it to at least one member of their sporting context while only 15% (n=3) prefer to keep this information for themselves. This openness in the sporting context is mainly due to a culture more open to diversities as well as a feeling of self-confidence from the athletes towards their gender identity. Also, athletes considered the openness of their sporting context to be mostly positive, especially from their team members and their coach. Despite these encouraging statistics, trans athletes is the most at risk group of experiencingLGBT-phobia as part of their sporting experience. In fact, from 11 trans athletes questioned, 9 of them(81%) experienced a minimum of one LGBT-phobia episode during their sporting experience,compared to athletes who identify as cisgender (46,1%, n=558). The group closest to trans athletes inLGBT-phobic experiments is the one with athletes who identify as queer or two-spirit (73,1%, n=40).Thus, gender identity appears to be the element related to a higher frequency of LGBT-phobic events experienced by an athlete. While there is clear progress when it comes to accessibility and openness to sexual diversity and gender identity in sport, LGBT-phobic situations for trans athletes remain present in the sporting context. To deepen this finding, interviews were conducted with three high-leveltrans women athletes in Canada. These interviews made it possible to grasp the importance of the sporting context in the lives of trans athletes and thus to put forward concrete courses of action for the future. For these athletes the priorities were to develop inclusion policies in all spheres of sport, to educate the actors in the sporting context about trans’ reality and to promote sports where sexual diversity and gender identities were put forward. In general, the athletes met were unanimous about the benefits of playing a sport and the support network it creates, especially for trans people. However,the sporting context must be open, welcoming and safe for trans athletes to evolve positively.




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