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Perfect vortex modes for nondestructive characterization of mode dependent loss in ring core fibers

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New York, N.Y. : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
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Ring core fibers (RCF) enable high-performance modal multiplexing with low crosstalk and can support orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. RCFs are challenging to characterize due to the lack of commercial multiplexers, especially for high OAM orders. For fibers supporting large numbers of modes, typical cutback techniques for characterization are extremely wasteful of fiber, especially as one cutback is required for each mode. We show the differential modal loss across modes 3 to 10 was significantly underestimated using an OTDR when exciting modes individually or when exciting all modes indiscriminately. We exploit perfect vortex beams to achieve reliable and nondestructive characterization of mode-dependent loss (MDL) for OAM modes. Perfect vortex beams allow us to maximize the coupling efficiency at each mode launch, increasing the accuracy of MDL estimate. We fabricated fiber with a refractive index difference between the ring core and the cladding of a 5.1×10⁻². For this fiber, mode orders 3 to 10 are the most suitable for data transmission and were the focus of our work (the fiber support up to OAM order 13). Such a high index difference can lead to MDL. We demonstrate that the modal loss spans from 2.14 to 4.38 dB/km for orders 3 to 10.
Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 40 (19) 6548-6599 (2022)
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Orbital angular momentum (OAM) , Ring core fiber (RCF) , Mode-dependent loss (MDL) , Perfect vortex (PV) , Mode-division-multiplexing (MDM) , Time-of-flight (ToF)
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article de recherche