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Interstitial cells from left-sided heart valves display more calcification potential than right-sided ones : an in vitro study of porcine valves

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BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The calcification of cardiac valves is more frequently observed on left-sided (aortic or mitral) than right-sided (pulmonic or tricuspid) valves. The cause of this preferential left-sided calcification remains relatively unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the capacity of interstitial cells isolated from the four cardiac valves of healthy adult pigs to calcify in culture. METHODS: Interstitial cells were isolated from the valve leaflets of three healthy young pigs and cultured in DMEM/fetal bovine serum (10%) in the presence or absence of osteogenic additives (ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, beta-glycerophosphate). RESULTS: The proliferation rate was similar for cells from each of the four valves. After longer periods of culture (> 10 days), cells from each valve spontaneously formed several calcification nodules, the process being accelerated in the presence of osteogenic additives (to 4-7 days). Alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was highest in cells originating from the aortic and mitral valves, respectively, and least in those from the pulmonic and tricuspid valves. Culture with the osteogenic additives increased the AP activity by at least 50% for each valve, but the relative AP activity between cells from each valve origin tended to remain similar (aortic > mitral > pulmonic > tricuspid). Interestingly, the levels of matrix Gla-protein mRNA (an endogenous calcification inhibitor) followed an opposite trend of expression for each valve. CONCLUSION: Interstitial cells from porcine cardiac valves share similarities, although the capacity to calcify is more evident in cells from valves of the left side of the heart. Interstitial cells from the aortic valve displayed the greatest potential for calcification.

The Journal of Heart Valve Disease, Vol. 18 (4), 221-229 (July 2009)
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Interstitial cells , Alkaline phosphatase , Heart valve , Calcification
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article de recherche