Personne :
Desrosiers, Patrick

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Desrosiers
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Patrick
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Université Laval. Département de physique, de génie physique et d'optique
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ncf11852206
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Résultats de recherche

Voici les éléments 1 - 5 sur 5
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Spectral dimension reduction of complex dynamical networks
    (American Physical Society, 2019-03-04) Laurence, Edward; Dubé, Louis J.; Doyon, Nicolas; Desrosiers, Patrick
    Dynamical networks are powerful tools for modeling a broad range of complex systems, including financial markets, brains, and ecosystems. They encode how the basic elements (nodes) of these systems interact altogether (via links) and evolve (nodes’ dynamics). Despite substantial progress, little is known about why some subtle changes in the network structure, at the so-called critical points, can provoke drastic shifts in its dynamics. We tackle this challenging problem by introducing a method that reduces any network to a simplified low-dimensional version. It can then be used to describe the collective dynamics of the original system. This dimension reduction method relies on spectral graph theory and, more specifically, on the dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the network adjacency matrix. Contrary to previous approaches, our method is able to predict the multiple activation of modular networks as well as the critical points of random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. Our results are of both fundamental and practical interest, as they offer a novel framework to relate the structure of networks to their dynamics and to study the resilience of complex systems.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Finite-size analysis of the detectability limit of the stochastic block model
    (American Physical Society, 2017-06-19) Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Laurence, Edward; Dubé, Louis J.; Desrosiers, Patrick
    It has been shown in recent years that the stochastic block model is sometimes undetectable in the sparse limit, i.e., that no algorithm can identify a partition correlated with the partition used to generate an instance, if the instance is sparse enough and infinitely large. In this contribution, we treat the finite case explicitly, using arguments drawn from information theory and statistics. We give a necessary condition for finite-size detectability in the general SBM. We then distinguish the concept of average detectability from the concept of instance-by-instance detectability and give explicit formulas for both definitions. Using these formulas, we prove that there exist large equivalence classes of parameters, where widely different network ensembles are equally detectable with respect to our definitions of detectability. In an extensive case study, we investigate the finite-size detectability of a simplified variant of the SBM, which encompasses a number of important models as special cases. These models include the symmetric SBM, the planted coloring model, and more exotic SBMs not previously studied. We conclude with three appendices, where we study the interplay of noise and detectability, establish a connection between our information-theoretic approach and random matrix theory, and provide proofs of some of the more technical results.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Sensory afferents use different coding strategies for heat and cold
    (Cell Press, 2018-05-15) Bélanger, Erik; De Koninck, Yves; Côté, Sylvain L.; Wang, Feng; Côté, Daniel; Prescott, Steven A.; Desrosiers, Patrick
    Primary afferents transduce environmental stimuli into electrical activity that is transmitted centrally to be decoded into corresponding sensations. However, it remains unknown how afferent populations encode different somatosensory inputs. To address this, we performed two-photon Ca2+ imaging from thousands of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in anesthetized mice while applying mechanical and thermal stimuli to hind paws. We found that approximately half of all neurons are polymodal and that heat and cold are encoded very differently. As temperature increases, more heating-sensitive neurons are activated, and most individual neurons respond more strongly, consistent with graded coding at population and single-neuron levels, respectively. In contrast, most cooling-sensitive neurons respond in an ungraded fashion, inconsistent with graded coding and suggesting combinatorial coding, based on which neurons are co-activated. Although individual neurons may respond to multiple stimuli, our results show that different stimuli activate distinct combinations of diversely tuned neurons, enabling rich population-level coding.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Counting hidden neural networks
    (Université de Waterloo (Canada), 2016-05-10) Young, Richard A.; Hardy, Simon; Doyon, Nicolas; Desrosiers, Patrick
    We apply combinatorial tools, including P´olya’s theorem, to enumerate all possible networks for which (1) the network contains distinguishable input and output nodes as well as partially distinguishable intermediate nodes; (2) all connections are directed and for each pair of nodes, there are at most two connections, that is, at most one connection per direction; (3) input nodes send connections but don’t receive any, while output nodes receive connections but don’t send any; (4) every intermediate node receives a path from an input node and sends a path to at least one output node; and (5) input nodes don’t send direct connections to output nodes. We first obtain the generating function for the number of such networks, and then use it to obtain precise estimates for the number of networks. Finally, we develop a computer algorithm that allows us to generate these networks. This work could become useful in the field of neuroscience, in which the problem of deciphering the structure of hidden networks is of the utmost importance, since there are several instances in which the activity of input and output neurons can be directly measured, while no direct access to the intermediate network is possible. Our results can also be used to count the number of finite automata in which each cell plays a relevant role.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    On the universality of the stochastic block model
    (American Physical Society, 2018-09-24) Young, Jean-Gabriel; St-Onge, Guillaume; Dubé, Louis J.; Desrosiers, Patrick
    Mesoscopic pattern extraction (MPE) is the problem of finding a partition of the nodes of a complex network that maximizes some objective function. Many well-known network inference problems fall in this category, including, for instance, community detection, core-periphery identification, and imperfect graph coloring. In this paper, we show that the most popular algorithms designed to solve MPE problems can in fact be understood as special cases of the maximum likelihood formulation of the stochastic block model (SBM) or one of its direct generalizations. These equivalence relations show that the SBM is nearly universal with respect to MPE problems.