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Université Laval. Institut sur la nutrition et les aliments fonctionnels
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- PublicationAccès libreComportements alimentaires et profil psychologique chez la femme : le nouveau paradigme en matière de gestion du poids peut-il être une alternative de choix?(2007) Provencher, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Bégin, CatherineLa prévalence croissante de l'obésité que nous connaissons actuellement est sans aucun doute d'un intérêt majeur en termes de santé publique, d'autant plus que les approches traditionnelles préconisées dans le traitement l'obésité produisent des résultats éphémères chez une majorité de gens. Une surenchère quant à l'urgence de perdre du poids peut alors être observée, particulièrement auprès des femmes, se réalisant parfois au détriment de l'adoption de meilleures habitudes de vie. Afin de tendre vers un équilibre qui soutient la santé dans sa globalité, il apparaît donc important de mieux comprendre les enjeux comportementaux et psychologiques associés à la problématique du poids chez la femme. Parallèlement, de nouvelles approches méritent d'être explorées, d'où la pertinence de documenter les effets d'un nouveau paradigme en matière de gestion du poids qui aborde la question sous l'angle de la santé et du bienêtre, et non de la perte de poids à tout prix. C'est dans cette optique que s'inscrivent les travaux de la présente thèse qui ont tenté de répondre aux questionnements soulevés à l'aide d'un devis de recherche tant descriptif que clinique, réalisé auprès de femmes présentant un surplus de poids et une préoccupation à l'égard de leur poids. Dans un premier temps, les analyses descriptives ont souligné la présence d'associations entre les variables psychologiques et les comportements alimentaires, ces liens s'observant indépendamment du poids. Ces résultats suggèrent donc qu'une approche visant une saine gestion du poids devrait intégrer les composantes psychologiques aux changements de comportements. Dans un deuxième temps, les résultats du volet clinique ont démontré que la désinhibition et la susceptibilité à la faim avaient diminué significativement chez les femmes ayant participé à une intervention s'inspirant du nouveau paradigme en matière de gestion du poids. Sachant que la présence de ces comportements alimentaires est associée à un plus grand risque de regain de poids à long terme de même qu'à un profil psychologique altéré, les changements observés suggèrent donc qu'une approche s'inspirant du nouveau paradigme pourrait être une alternative de choix auprès de femmes présentant un surplus de poids cl une préoccupation à l'égard de leur poids.
- PublicationAccès libreAssociations between eating patterns, dietary intakes and eating behaviors in premenopausal overweight women(Pergamon, 2012-04-01) Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Leblanc, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Tremblay, Angelo; Lemieux, Simone; Bégin, Catherine; Provencher, VéroniqueThe regulation of energy intake is complex and many biological, psychosocial and environmental influences have been identified. To our knowledge, no study has yet investigated how eating patterns could mediate associations between eating behaviors and self-reported energy intake in premenopausal overweight women. Therefore, objectives of this study were to examine associations between eating behaviors and eating patterns in premenopausal overweight women and to test if eating patterns could mediate the associations between eating behaviors and self-reported energy intake. Women completed a 3-day food record and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was used to assess eating behaviors (dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger). In the total sample of women, flexible restraint was negatively (r = - 0.18; p = 0.03) and binge eating severity was positively (r = 0.24; p = 0.004) associated with self-reported energy intake. Moreover, flexible restraint was positively associated with the proportion of energy intake at breakfast (r = 0.24; p = 0.004), whereas disinhibition and binge eating severity were positively associated with the proportion of energy intake from snacks consumed after 5:00 pm (r = 0.22, p = 0.007 and r = 0.22, p = 0.01, respectively). In addition, mediational analyses showed that proportion of energy intake from snacks consumed after 5:00 pm explained 24.1% of the association between binge eating severity and self-reported energy intake. In conclusion, these results suggest that eating patterns are important factors to consider in order to explain the associations between eating behaviors and self-reported energy intake.
- PublicationRestreintValidation of a french-canadian adaptation of the intuitive eating scale-2 for the adult population(Academic Press, 2016-05-11) Carbonneau, Élise; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bradette-Laplante, Maude; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Bégin, Catherine; Provencher, VéroniqueIntuitive eating is an adaptive eating style based on the reliance on physiological cues to determine when, what, and how much to eat. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) is a validated four-subscale tool measuring the degree of adherence to intuitive eating principles. The present series of studies aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of a French-Canadian adaptation of the IES-2 for the adult population. The factor structure, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), the construct validity, and the discriminant validity were evaluated in 334 women and 75 men from the Province of Québec, Canada, across two studies. A confirmatory factor analysis upheld that the four-factor structure of the original IES-2 was adequate for the present sample of French-Canadians. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity evidence was obtained with the significant associations between intuitive eating and psychological and eating-related variables. Intuitive eating was negatively associated with eating disorder symptomatology and with food- and weight-preoccupation, and positively associated with body-esteem and well-being. The French-Canadian IES-2 was also able to discriminate between genders and body mass index categories. The properties of this new version of the IES-2 are demonstrative of a reliable and valid tool to assess intuitive eating in the French-Canadian adult population of the Province of Québec.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food(Cambridge University Press, 2015-10-06) Drapeau, Vicky; Perron, Julie; Carbonneau, Élise; Pomerleau, Sonia; Doucet, Éric; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, VéroniqueThe purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m2) and seventy-one obese women (BMI= 30 kg/m2) were given three meals per d under ad libitum conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental labelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P =0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women’s fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.
- PublicationAccès libreFactors influencing the adoption of a healthy eating campaign by federal cross-sector partners : a qualitative study(BioMed Central, 2016-08-30) Dufour, Joëlle; Turcotte, Mylène; Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Marquis, Marie; Desroches, Sophie; Provencher, VéroniqueBackground: The Eat Well Campaign (EWC) was a social marketing campaign developed by Health Canada and disseminated to the public with the help of cross-sector partners. The purpose of this study was to describe factors that influenced cross-sector partners’ decision to adopt the EWC. Methods: Thematic content analysis, based primarily on an a priori codebook of constructs from Roger’s diffusion of innovations decision process model, was conducted on hour-long semi-structured telephone interviews with Health Canada’s cross-sector partners (n = 18). Results: Dominant themes influencing cross-sector partners’ decision to adopt the EWC were: high compatibility with the organization’s values; being associated with Health Canada; and low perceived complexity of activities. Several adopters indicated that social norms (e.g., knowing that other organizations in their network were involved in the collaboration) played a strong role in their decision to participate, particularly for food retailers and small organizations. The opportunity itself to work in partnership with Health Canada and other organizations was seen as a prominent relative advantage by many organizations. Adopters were characterized as having high social participation and positive attitudes towards health, new ideas and Health Canada. The lack of exposure to the mass media channels used to diffuse the campaign and reserved attitudes towards Health Canada were prominent obstacles identified by a minority of health organizations, which challenged the decision to adopt the EWC. Most other barriers were considered as minor challenges and did not appear to impede the adoption process. Conclusions: Understanding factors that influence cross-sector adoption of nutrition initiatives can help decision makers target the most appropriate partners to advance public health objectives. Government health agencies are likely to find strong partners in organizations that share the same values as the initiative, have positive attitudes towards health, are extremely implicated in social causes and value the notion of partnership
- PublicationAccès libreSalient beliefs among Canadian adults regarding milk and cheese consumption : a qualitative study based on the theory of planned behaviour(BioMed Central, 2016-08-09) Painchaud Guérard, Geneviève; Turcotte, Mylène; Couture, François.; Desroches, Sophie; Paquin, Paul; Provencher, Véronique; Lacroix, Marie-JoséeBackground In spite of multiple efforts by public health authorities to promote consumption of milk and alternatives in the Canadian adult population, consumption of these healthy foods is still suboptimal. This study aimed to explore salient beliefs underlying the consumption of fluid milk and cheese among adults. Methods The qualitative descriptive research design was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework, using 20 focus groups. A total of 161 men and women (19 to 50 years old) from Quebec City, Montreal and Toronto (Canada) were recruited to participate in focus groups. A hybrid approach (deductive and inductive) to qualitative methods of thematic analysis was used during coding of focus group transcripts to draw out participant’s salient beliefs regarding milk and cheese consumption. Results For both milk and cheese, most groups cited advantages or disadvantages with regards to health effects, nutritional value, taste, socio-affective aspects and practicality. Family and friends, health professionals and advisors, and communications domain (e.g. advertisements, TV programs, well-known personalities) were cited as major influences affecting consumption. Price reduction, product improvements, supply increase and variation, favourable food/drink combinations and access were among the most commonly cited facilitators for milk and cheese consumption. Major barriers included high price, reduced confidence in the product (reasons/contexts that reduce perceived safety of the product), health status, problems linked to supply (varieties/formats which are not available), and habits and cultural values. Gender and level of milk and cheese consumption differences were observed between groups: men referred more often to industry and politics as factors influencing their milk consumption, while women expressed more animal and environmental concerns. Differences were also noted between high and low consumer’s groups in relation to the themes of taste, pleasure and emotions for milk and cheese consumption. Lastly, low consumers expressed more distrust and disgust relating to milk consumption than high consumers. Conclusions The majority of beliefs observed are consistent with earlier studies on milk or dairy product consumption. Consumers’ concerns about origins of milk, however, have never been reported. These findings will help optimize approaches for promoting consumption of these foods among different segments of Canadian adults.
- PublicationAccès libreInfluence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2016-09-20) Painchaud Guérard, Geneviève; Pomerleau, Sonia; Doucet, Éric; Lemieux, Simone; Provencher, VéroniqueNutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three ("healthy" versus "diet" (i.e., satiating) versus "hedonic") by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18-65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150¿mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1¿h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.
- PublicationAccès libreDepressive symptoms and food intake among weight-preoccupied women : do eating behaviors and attitudes or BMI mediate this association?(Scientific Research Publishing, 2014-12-01) Maltais-Giguère, Julie; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Daoust, Mélodie; Bégin, Catherine; Provencher, VéroniqueAssociations between depressive symptoms, dysfunctional eating behaviors and attitudes, higher food intake and body mass index (BMI) have been previously observed. However, few studies have assessed these variables in the same study. The first objective is to compare, in a natural setting environment, the profile of women reporting lower or higher levels of depressive symptoms in terms of food intake, eating behaviors and attitudes, and BMI. The second objective is to test mediational models for which the link between depressive symptoms and food intake would be mediated by eating behaviors and attitudes or BMI. Weight-preoccupied women were recruited (n = 323), and their level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. The median score was used to create two groups (lower ≤ 13; higher > 13). A web-based food-frequency questionnaire, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the Intuitive Eating Scale were completed. BMI was calculated from reported body weight and height. Compared to women with a lower level of depressive symptoms, those with a higher level of depressive symptoms reported a higher energy intake (p = 0.02), and a higher consumption of savoury foods (p = 0.02). These women also had higher scores of disinhibition (p < 0.0001) and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.0002), ate less intuitively (p < 0.03), and had a higher BMI (p = 0.005). Association between depressive symptoms and energy intake was mediated by disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger and eating for physical rather than emotional reasons, while the role of BMI was less clear. Regarding another component of food intake, association between depressive symptoms and consumption of savoury foods was mediated by disinhibition and eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. In summary, it seems essential to be aware of the presence of depressive symptoms and to pay attention to eating behaviors and attitudes in interventions among weight-preoccupied women.
- PublicationAccès libreFood perceptions among adults and registered dietitians : are they similar?(Scientific Research Publishing, 2013-10-01) Pageau, Martine; Mongeau, Lyne; Cloutier, Kathleen; Provencher, VéroniquePurpose: To determine how adults and registered dietitians (RDs) perceived foods according to a frequency continuum, and to assess the differences between them. Methods: A sample of 1002 adults and 566 RDs were recruited. Participants had to associate 51 foods with a frequency continuum (“daily”, “occasional” or “sometimes”). Food groups were created: 1) Canada’s Food Guide’s groups (CFG) (n = 22), 2) High in Fat or High in Sugar foods (HFHS) (n = 16), and 3) Meals (n = 13). Results: CFG were perceived as “daily” foods (adults = 56.8%, RDs = 94.5%), HFHS as “sometimes” foods (adults = 67.2%, RDs = 59.6%) and Meals as “occasional” foods (adults = 75.8%, RDs = 58.2%). Adults (all age groups) perceived that CFG and Meals should be eaten less frequently than RDs (18 to 64 years old). Younger adults perceived these two groups as to be eaten more frequently than older respondents. Adults perceived HFHS as to be consumed less frequently than RDs (no age effect). Conclusions: While adults tend to have more severe perceptions than RDs, results show that their food perceptions are in line with an overall awareness of Canadian nutrition guidelines, suggesting the presence of a relevant popular knowledge about the value of food.
- PublicationAccès libre‘‘Healthy,’’ ‘‘diet,’’ or ‘‘hedonic’’ : how nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?(Academic Press, 2012-09-07) Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Doucet, Éric; Gravel, Karine; Herman, C. Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, VéroniqueThe main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the “healthy” condition than in the “diet” and “hedonic” conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the “hedonic” than in the “healthy” condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and “fatteningness” of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior.