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Maziade, Michel

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Université Laval. Faculté de médecine



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  • PublicationRestreint
    Cognitive structure from childhood to adulthood in kindreds densely affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2015-07-23) Mérette, Chantal; Jomphe, Valérie; Moreau, Isabel; Gilbert, Elsa; Paccalet, Thomas; Roy, Marc-André; Rouleau, Nancie; Cellard, Caroline; Maziade, Michel
    The developmental aspects of cognitive structures from childhood until adulthood and across different levels of risk for psychopathology have been little studied. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive factorial structure in subsamples from highly familial and densely affected kindreds of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – i.e. affected adult members, non-affected adult members and high-risk youth. The same neuropsychological battery was administered in a sample of 480 participants: schizophrenia and bipolar patients (n=51), young high-risk offspring (n=61), non-affected adult relatives of patients (n=96), and controls (n=272). Exploratory Factorial Analysis was performed in the control sample and yielded a 5-factor solution: verbal comprehension, processing speed/working memory, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the hierarchical 5-factor solution was well suited for the young high-risk offspring, the non-affected adult relatives of patient and the patients. A hierarchical model with a “g” factor was a good fit for all subsamples. These results suggest that cognitive impairments may aggregate in highly familial individuals.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Polygenic risk scores distinguish patients from non-affected adult relatives and from normal controls in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder multi-affected kindreds
    (Wiley, 2017-11-28) Mérette, Chantal; Boies, Sébastien; Paccalet, Thomas; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, Michel
    Recent studies have used results on SNP association with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) discriminating non‐familial unrelated patients from controls. Little is known about the role of PRS in densely affected multigenerational families. We tested PRS differences between affected SZ and BD family members from their non‐affected adult relatives (NAARs) in Eastern Quebec Kindreds and from controls. We examined 1227 subjects: from 17 SZ and BD kindreds, we studied 153 patients (57 SZ, 13 schizoaffective, and 83 BD) and 180 NAARs, and 894 unrelated controls from the Eastern Quebec population. PRS were derived from published case‐control association studies of SZ and BD. We also constructed a combined SZ and BD PRS by using SNPs from both SZ and BD PRS. SZ patients had higher SZ PRS than controls (p = 0.0039, R2 = 0.027) and BD patients had higher BD PRS than controls (p = 0.013, R2 = 0.027). Differences between affected subjects and NAARs and controls were significant with both SZ and BD PRS. Moreover, a combined SZ‐BD PRS was also significantly associated with SZ and BD when compared to NAARs (p = 0.0019, R2 = 0.010) and controls (p = 0.0025, R2 = 0.028), revealing a SZ‐BD commonality effect in PRS at the diagnosis level. The SZ and the BD PRS, however, showed a degree of specificity regarding thought disorder symptoms. Overall, our report would confirm the usefulness of PRS in capturing the contribution of common genetic variants to the risk of SZ and BD in densely affected families.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Cognitive restructuring in the treatment of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia : a critical analysis
    (Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, 2006-03-02) Vallières, Annie; Roy, Marc-André; Bouchard, Stéphane; Maziade, Michel
    This article reviews the 15 empirical studies that have used cognitive restructuring in the treatment of schizophrenia, more specifically for psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). Three elements are considered before investigating its effectiveness: (a) if subjects are reliably diagnosed with schizophrenia with chronic course and severe impairment; (b) if psychotic symptoms are adequately measured; and (c) if designs are methodologically sound. Our investigation revealed that schizophrenia is not reliably diagnosed and severity is low to moderate. Assessment of psychotic symptoms is satisfactory, but assessment of generalization to other areas is limited. Only five studies possess reliable design and are performed with schizophrenia subjects. These studies suggest that cognitive restructuring is effective to reduce or eliminate hallucinations or delusions in schizophrenia patients.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    The interaction of GSK3B and FXR1 genotypes may influence the mania and depression dimensions in mood disorders
    (Elsevier, 2017-02-16) Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Paccalet, Thomas; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, Michel
    Background: Previous evidence in healthy subjects suggested that functional polymorphisms GSK3B rs12630592 and FXR1 rs496250 interact in regulating mood and emotional processing. We attempted to replicate this interaction primarily on manic and depressive dimensions in mood disorder patients, and secondarily on schizophrenia patients, diagnosis itself and age of onset. Methods : Symptom dimensions were derived from the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History 82 items rated lifetime in acute episodes and stabilized interepisode intervals in 384 patients from the Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Eastern Quebec Kindred Study. Linear mixed effect models of symptom dimensions included rs12630592-rs496250 main and interaction fixed effects (obtained from TaqMan genotypes), and a polygenic random effect. The distribution of lifetime best-estimate DSM-IV diagnosis of 855 kindred members was studied versus genotype under a polytomous logistic model. Results : In mood disorder patients, the level of mania (in both acute and stabilized periods) and depression in stabilized periods was positively associated with GSK3B rs12630592 T only in FXR1 rs496250 A-allele carriers (Bonferroni-corrected interaction p=0.024, 0.052 and 0.017 respectively). The two polymorphisms explained 11% of mania variance and 5% of interepisode depression variance. The association was observed neither in schizophrenia patients nor with the psychotic dimension in mood disorder patients. Interaction with the diagnosis distribution (p=0.03) was driven by the decreasing prevalence of recurrent major depression with rs12630592 T also only in carriers of rs496250 A. Limitations : Sample size was limited, but power was sufficient to detect the tested interaction effect in this replication sample. Conclusions : We replicate in affective patients an interaction between the FXR1 rs496250 and GSK3B rs12630592 polymorphisms in regulating mood dimensions.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    A multimodal attempt to follow-up linkage regions using RNA expression, SNPs and CpG methylation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder kindreds
    (European Society of Human Genetics, 2019-11-06) Croteau, Jordie; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Paccalet, Thomas; Roy, Marc-André; Fournier, Alain; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, Michel
    The complexity of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has slowed down progress in understanding their genetic roots. Alternative genomic approaches are needed to bypass these difficulties. We attempted a multimodal approach to follow-up on reported linkage findings in SZ and BD from the Eastern Quebec kindreds in chromosomes 3q21, 4p34, 6p22, 8p21, 8p11, 13q11-q14, 15q13, 16p12, and 18q21. First, in 498 subjects, we measured RNA expression (47 K Illumina chips) in SZ and BD patients that we compared with their non-affected relatives (NARs) to identify, for each chromosomal region, genes showing the most significant differences in expression. Second, we performed SNP genotyping (700 K Illumina chips) and cis-eQTN analysis. Third, we measured DNA methylation on genes with RNA expression differences or eQTNs. We found a significant overexpression of the gene ITGB5 at 3q25 in SZ and BD after multiple testing p value adjustment. SPCS3 gene at 4q34, and FZD3 gene at 8p21, contained significant eQTNs after multiple testing corrections, while ITGB5 provided suggestive results. Methylation in associated genes did not explain the expression differences between patients and NARs. Our multimodal approach involving RNA expression, dense SNP genotyping and eQTN analyses, restricted to chromosomal regions having shown linkage, lowered the multiple testing burden and allowed for a deeper examination of candidate genes in SZ or BD.