Personne : Guay, Frédéric
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Université Laval. Département des sciences animales
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- PublicationAccès libreEffects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat(Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Animal, 2016-04-01) Kone, Amenan Prisca Nadege; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André; Cinq-Mars, Dany; Saucier, Linda; Guay, FrédéricThe effects of dietary supplementation with onion, cranberry and strawberry extracts and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients. Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu) of the Longissimus dorsi (LD) and the Biceps femoris muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* colour parameters were obtained for the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu) was measured. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04). However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals that received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. However, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that dietary supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small but sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimised by investigating higher doses.
- PublicationAccès libreHierarchical clustering as a tool to develop a classification scheme for rabbit meat quality(Association française de cuniculture, 2021-09-01) Larivière-Lajoie, Anne-Sophie; Binggeli, Simon; Cinq-Mars, Dany; Saucier, Linda; Dalmau, Antoni; Guay, FrédéricThis study aimed to characterise the quality of meat from commercially-raised rabbits. Animals came from five different producers and were slaughtered in three different plants under provincial or federal inspection jurisdiction. Animal behaviour evaluated by scan sampling prior to feed withdrawal (FW) and transport, as well as blood lactate concentration at exsanguination, did not raise concerns with respect to stress. Stomach pH was higher (P=0.047) when the FW time was short (≤13.5 h), at a mean value of 2.23. All pH values measured 1 h post-mortem from the Biceps femoris (BF) and almost all (97.6%) from the Longissimus lumborum (LL) were higher than 6. Values for ultimate pH measured 24 h postmortem (pHu) ranged from 5.80 to 6.83 and from 5.70 to 6.70 for BF and LL muscles, respectively. The maximum meat drip loss recorded was 2.6%, while cooking loss reached 30%. Meat lightness (L*) and colour intensity (C*) for the long FW times (≥23 h) were no different from those with short and intermediate (15.5 to 17.3 h) FW times. However, these colour parameters were higher for the short FW time class compared to the intermediate FW time class (P<0.02). A hierarchical cluster analysis based on pHu , cooking loss and lightness (L*) from 200 rabbit loins was performed. Of the four clusters created, clusters 1 and 2 had the best and second-best meat quality, respectively. Clusters 3 and 4 had the lowest meat quality and presented DFD-like (dark, firm and dry) characteristics. Meat did not exhibit PSE-like (pale, soft, exudative) characteristics, even for the slaughter lot with the minimum mean pHu. Of the eight slaughter lots evaluated, more than 50% of the meat from three of them fell into clusters 3 and 4; all three were in the intermediate FW time class. Overall, the quality of rabbit meat analysed was acceptable for commercial use, but rather variable. This suggests that there are factors within the value chain that are not yet fully controlled and require further investigation.
- PublicationAccès libreApplication of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum as a feed additive for weaned rabbits to improve meat microbial quality and safety(Applied Science Publishers., 2017-10-02) Kone, Amenan Prisca Nadege; Zea, Juliana Maria Velez; Gagné, Dominic; Cinq-Mars, Dany; Saucier, Linda; Guay, FrédéricThis study addresses the improvement of meat microbial quality by enriching the diet of farm animals with a protective culture. Weaned Grimaud rabbits were divided into two experimental groups: a control and a diet supplemented with Micocin® (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CB1; 8 Log10 CFU/kg of feed). Overall, meat quality was not affected substantially by the treatment. Total Aerobic Mesophilic (TAM), Escherichia coli and other coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria spp. and presumptive lactic acid bacteria counts were evaluated on whole thighs stored under aerobic (0, 3, 6, 8 days) and anaerobic (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 days) conditions at 4 °C. The results demonstrated that the microflora on refrigerated thighs was modulated by the addition of Micocin® (P < 0.05) and that the most effective reduction of Listeria monocytogenes growth was observed with ground meat stored under anaerobic conditions at 4 °C with a 2 Log difference at the end of a 15-day storage (P = 0.025).
- PublicationAccès libreEffects on microbial quality of fresh pork loin during storage from oregano oil and cranberry pulp diet supplementation in pigs(Canadian Science Publishing, 2012-12-01) Fortier, Marie-Pierre; Saucier, Linda; Guay, FrédéricOregano oil and ground cranberry pulp supplements were added to the diets of finishing pigs to determine their antimicrobial effects on fresh loin during storage at 2±1°C. Two doses of oil (250 and 500 mg kg-1) and three doses of cranberry (5, 10 and 20 g kg-1) were tested according to a factorial experimental design. The control group did not receive any supplements. The meat was vacuum packed and analyzed after 0, 23, 45 and 60 d. Samples were re-packaged under aerobic conditions after 0 or 23 d and analyzed after 4, 8 and 12 d. Microbial analysis was performed periodically throughout the experiment. Initial cell counts were below detection level for total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) (<102 cfu g-1), Pseudomonas spp. (<102 cfu g-1), presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (<102 cfu g-1), and Escherichia coli and coliform counts (<101 cfu g-1). No significant difference in TAM counts was observed between all of the six different treatments and the control group except for samples packaged at day 0 under aerobic conditions after 12 d of storage where a significant effect of the supplementation was observed (P<0.03). Under anaerobic conditions, LAB were not affected and remained the predominant microflora despite antimicrobial treatments.
- PublicationAccès libreThe role of genetic selection on agonistic behavior and welfare of gestating sows housed in large semi-static groups(MDPI AG, 2020-12-04) Brajon, Sophie; Guay, Frédéric; Devillers, Nicolas; Ahloy Dallaire, JamieConfinement of gestating sows is becoming banished in favor of group-housing in countries worldwide, forcing breeding companies to develop genetic lines adapted for social living. This study aimed at assessing the influence of two genetic lines selected for high performance (HP1, HP2, derived from Landrace × Yorkshire) on welfare and reproductive performance of sows housed in large semi-static groups (20 groups of 46–91 animals) across several parities. To address this, agonistic behaviors were recorded on d0, d2, d27, and d29 post-mixing while body lesions were scored on d1, d26, and d84. Sows’ individual and reproductive performances were also recorded. HP2 sows were more aggressive than HP1 sows since they fought (p = 0.028) and bullied (p = 0.0009) pen-mates more frequently on d0–d2. HP2 sows had more total body lesions throughout gestation than HP1 sows at higher parities (p < 0.0001). Regarding reproductive performance, HP2 sows lost less piglets (p < 0.0001) and tended to wean more piglets (p = 0.067) than HP1 sows. In conclusion, while HP2 sows were the most aggressive, HP1 sows had piglets with lower survivability, which raises ethical issues in both cases and points to the need of considering social aspects when developing genetic lines for group-housing.
- PublicationAccès librePlant extracts and essential oil product as feed additives to control rabbit meat microbial quality(2018-12-23) Kone, Amenan Prisca Nadege; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André; Cinq-Mars, Dany; Saucier, Linda; Guay, FrédéricThe present work evaluated the effects of feed supplementation with plant extracts (onion, cranberry) and a commercial essential oil product (Xtract™) on rabbit meat quality. Five groups of 48 weaned Grimaud female rabbits each received a control ration (C) or a diet supplemented with onion extract (500 or 1000 ppm), cranberry extracts (500 ppm) and essential oil product (100 ppm) alone or in combination. Microbiological quality was evaluated on whole hind legs stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4 °C. Growth performances, feed intake and both meat composition and quality were similar amongst the experimental groups. Anyhow, meat total phenolic content was significantly higher in all supplemented ones (P < 0.001). Diet supplementation effect was observed (P < 0.05) and microbial control was improved more importantly under anaerobic conditions, notably for Total Aerobic Mesophilic counts, presumptive Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.03). Overall, supplementation with onion extract (500 ppm) suppressed microbial growth more effectively.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of oregano oil and cranberry pulp supplementation in finishing pigs on the physicochemical quality of fresh loin during storage(Agricultural Institute of Canada, 2021-07-20) Fortier, Marie-Pierre; Saucier, Linda; Guay, FrédéricOregano oil and cranberry pulp supplements were added to the diets of finishing pigs to determine their effects on the meat quality of fresh loins during storage. Two and three levels of oregano oil (250 and 500 mg·kg−1) and cranberry pulp (5, 10, and 20 g·kg−1) were tested, according to a factorial experimental design. The loin meat was vacuum packed and analyzed at 0 (after the 24 h chilling period post slaughter), 23, 45, and 60 d of storage. Samples were repackaged under aerobic conditions after 0 or 23 d and analyzed after 4, 8, and 12 d. Oregano and cranberry supplements did not affect lipid oxidation (microgram of malondialdehyde equivalent per kilogram of meat) during anaerobic or aerobic storage. On day 0, the fatty acid profile of the loin samples demonstrated that the addition of cranberries at a dose of 10 g·kg−1 was associated with a lower percentage of saturated fatty acids (P = 0.04; 42.97% vs. 40.99%) and a trend for a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.06; 47.26% vs. 46.09%). Considering the result obtained, feeding pigs with oregano and cranberry supplements had a limited effect on meat quality parameters measured during storage.
- PublicationAccès libreSocial status and previous experience in the group as predictors of welfare of sows housed in large semi-static groups(Public Library of Science, 2021-06-08) Brajon, Sophie; Guay, Frédéric; Devillers, Nicolas; Ahloy Dallaire, JamieMixing gestating sows implies hierarchy formation and has detrimental consequences on welfare. The effects of social stress on the most vulnerable individuals may be underestimated and it is therefore important to evaluate welfare between individuals within groups. This study aimed at investigating the impact of social status and previous experience in the group on well-being of sows housed in large semi-static groups. We assessed aggression (d0 (mixing), d2, d27, d29), body lesions (d1, d26, d84) and feeding order on 20 groups of 46–91 animals. Social status was based on the proportion of fights won during a 6-hr observation period between d0 and d2. Dominants (29%) were those who won more fights than they lost, Subdominants (25%) won fewer fights than they lost, Losers (23%) never won any fight in which they were involved while Avoiders (23%) were never involved in fights. Resident sows (70%) were already present in the group in the previous gestation while New sows (30%) were newly introduced at mixing. Subdominants and Dominants were highly involved in fights around mixing but this was more detrimental for Subdominants than Dominants, Losers and Avoiders since they had the highest body lesion scores at mixing. Avoiders received less non-reciprocal agonistic acts than Losers on d2 (P = 0.0001) and had the lowest body lesion scores after mixing. However, Avoiders and Losers were more at risk in the long-term since they had the highest body lesions scores at d26 and d84. They were followed by Subdominants and then Dominants. New sows fought more (P<0.0001), tended to be involved in longer fights (P = 0.075) around mixing and had more body lesions throughout gestation than Resident sows. Feeding order from one-month post-mixing was influenced both by the previous experience in the group and social status (P<0.0001). New sows, especially with a low social status, are more vulnerable throughout gestation and could serve as indicators of non-optimal conditions.