Personne :
Simard, Manon

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Département d'éducation physique, Faculté des sciences de l'éducation, Université Laval
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Towards a better understanding of the benefits and risks of country food consumption using the case of walruses in Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada)
    (Elsevier BV, 2020-02-13) Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M.; Lemire, Mélanie; Avard, Ellen; Furgal, C. (Chris); Simard, Manon; Burness, Gary P.; Bertrand, Philip; Suppa, Sandy
    Food insecurity affects Inuit communities. One solution is to consume locally harvested foods, named country foods. However, some country foods are not eaten as often as before, and pressures including contaminants and environmental changes threaten the health of Arctic fauna, thus its suitability for local consumption. By combining Inuit Knowledge with laboratory data, our study assessed the benefits and risks of walrus consumption by Inuit in Nunavik, Québec, Canada. It aimed to increase understanding of: 1) the hunt of healthy Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus); 2) the safe preparation of walruses; 3) the nutritional benefits and risks of consuming walruses. To do so, we interviewed 34 hunters and Elders from Nunavik. Levels of mercury, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium were evaluated from locally harvested walruses. Through the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program, a total of 755 Atlantic walrus samples, collected between 1994 and 2013, were tested for Trichinella nativa. Information on botulism was reviewed. While interviews informed on how to select healthy walruses and prepare them for consumption, laboratory analyses revealed that walruses had elevated levels of omega-3 fatty acids and selenium but low levels of mercury compared to some other wildlife. Only 3% of the 755 walruses were infected with T. nativa. Most walruses' infections were found within individuals from the South East Hudson Bay stock, where Inuit have thus decided to stop hunting since mid-2000s. Finally, although the number of outbreaks of trichinellosis related to the consumption of walruses has significantly reduced in Nunavik, botulism could continue to be an issue when igunaq (i.e. aged walrus) is not properly prepared. With the support of the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program and transmission of Inuit knowledge on igunaq preparation, the consumption of Atlantic walruses has the potential to help address issues related to food insecurity in Nunavik in the future.
  • Publication
    The unique contribution of a local response group in the field investigation and management of a trichinellosis outbreak in Nunavik (Québec, Canada)
    (Canadian Public Health Association, 2019-10-21) Lemire, Mélanie; Proulx, Jean-François; Lévesque, Benoît; Simard, Manon; Iqaluk, Martha; Ducrocq, Julie; Elijassiapik, Lisa; Ningiuk, Etok; Perkins, Pamela
    Setting : Consumption of raw game meats is important for Inuit health and well-being but may sometimes increase risk of exposure to parasites. In Nunavik, following trichinellosis outbreaks in the 1980s caused by raw walrus consumption, a diagnostic test was developed for the region and offered to all Inuit communities by 1997. Despite this prevention program, an important trichinellosis outbreak occurred in 2013, affecting 18 inhabitants of Inukjuak. Intervention : Because the classical outbreak investigation did not rapidly converge toward a common food source or specific event, a local response group, composed of four community members appointed by the Municipal Council as well as the regional public health physician, nurse and wildlife parasitologist, was created. Their objective was to investigate potential sources of infection related to the outbreak, hence the investigation of the types of meats consumed, the movement of meats between and within the community, and the local practices of processing game meat. Outcomes : Though the source of infection was not fully confirmed, this local investigation identified the distribution of transformed polar bear meat as the most probable source of infection. The creation of this unique, intersectoral and intercultural local response group fostered the use of local knowledge to better understand aspects of the modern food system, and is one of the most innovative outcomes of this investigation. Implications : Integrating multiple ways of knowing was critical for the management of this important public health issue and contributed to community members’ mobilization and empowerment with respect to local food safety issues.
  • Publication
    Comparison of gross visual and microscopic assessment of four anatomic sites to monitor Besnoitia tarandi in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus)
    (Wildlife Disease Association, 2012-07-01) Brodeur, Vincent; Beauchamp, Guy; Côté, Steeve D.; Kutz, Susan; Taillon, Joëlle.; Simard, Manon; Elkin, Brett; Ducrocq, Julie; Croft, Bruno; Campbell, Mitch; Cooley, Dorothy; Cuyler, Christine; Lair, Stéphane
    The objective of this study was to establish a standardized protocol to monitor Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and intensity in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds by: 1) calculating the relative sensitivity and specificity of the gross visual assessment of four anatomical sites compared with microscopic evaluation, and 2) determining which of four anatomical sampling sites was the most sensitive for detecting B. tarandi cysts by microscopy. Sampled tissues consisted of the conjunctiva of the left eye and skin sections from the rostrum, metatarsus, and thigh from 312 harvested caribou. Diagnosis of infection with B. tarandi was based on observation of at least one cyst by microscopic examination. For each tissue, the maximal density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm(2) in the section examined) was calculated for a measured area consisting of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. For the conjunctiva, the entire submucosa was evaluated. Gross visual evaluation markedly underestimated B. tarandi prevalence in caribou with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.29 in the conjunctiva to 0.13 in the skin section from the thigh, whereas relative specificities ranged from 0.98 to 1.00. The metatarsus and rostrum skin sections had the highest probabilities of cyst detection of all four anatomical sampling sites. The metatarsus harbored significantly higher densities of B. tarandi cysts than the rostrum, thigh, or conjunctiva. In conclusion, microscopic evaluation of a skin section from the anterior aspect of the mid-third portion of the metatarsal region could be used as a standardized comparative indicator of density of B. tarandi infection in Rangifer.
  • Publication
    Variables associated with Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and cyst density in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations
    (Wildlife Disease Association, Inc., 2013-01-01) Côté, Steeve D.; Beauchamp, Guy; Brodeur, Vincent; Kutz, Susan; Taillon, Joëlle.; Simard, Manon; Ducrocq, Julie; Lair, Stéphane
    Besnoitia tarandi has been documented in free-ranging reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp.) since 1922 throughout their arctic and subarctic ranges; however, very little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated variables associated with B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density with the use of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from two migratory herds in northern Quebec: the Rivière-aux-Feuilles and the Rivière-George herds. Diagnosis of infection was made upon the microscopic observation of characteristic cysts in a formalin-fixed section of skin from the anterior aspect of the metatarsus. The density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm2) was calculated in a section of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. Statistically significant associations between B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density, sex, age, and time of harvest were observed. Male caribou had a slightly higher prevalence compared to females, whereas cyst densities were similar between sexes. We found a nonlinear increase in the odds of infection by B. tarandi by age combined with the opposite trend for intensity of infection. Higher B. tarandi prevalence was observed in caribou sampled in the fall compared to June of the same year, suggesting that transmission is increased during the summer. Higher densities of cysts observed during the fall compared to June of the following year may be the result of the elimination of B. tarandi cysts from the dermis during the winter, or lower winter survival of heavily infected caribou. Comparisons of B. tarandi prevalence and density across herds should take into account these different variables.