Personne :
Lessard, Julie.

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Lessard
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Julie.
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Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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Voici les éléments 1 - 6 sur 6
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Characterization of dedifferentiating human mature adipocytes from the 6 visceral and subcutaneous fat compartments : fibroblast-activation protein 7 alpha and Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 as major components of matrix remodeling
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-03-27) Biron, Simon; Biertho, Laurent; Lescelleur, Odette; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Simon; Marceau, Picard; Moustarah, Fady; Lebel, Stéfane; Pelletier, Mélissa; Lessard, Julie.; Tchernof, André
    Mature adipocytes can reverse their phenotype to become fibroblast-like cells. This is achieved by ceiling culture and the resulting cells, called dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells, are multipotent. Beyond the potential value of these cells for regenerative medicine, the dedifferentiation process itself raises many questions about cellular plasticity and the pathways implicated in cell behavior. This work has been performed with the objective of obtaining new information on adipocyte dedifferentiation, especially pertaining to new targets that may be involved in cellular fate changes. To do so, omental and subcutaneous mature adipocytes sampled from severely obese subjects have been dedifferentiated by ceiling culture. An experimental design with various time points along the dedifferentiation process has been utilized to better understand this process. Cell size, gene and protein expression as well as cytokine secretion were investigated. Il-6, IL-8, SerpinE1 and VEGF secretion were increased during dedifferentiation, whereas MIF-1 secretion was transiently increased. A marked decrease in expression of mature adipocyte transcripts (PPARγ2, C/EBPα, LPL and Adiponectin) was detected early in the process. In addition, some matrix remodeling transcripts (FAP, DPP4, MMP1 and TGFβ1) were rapidly and strongly up-regulated. FAP and DPP4 proteins were simultaneously induced in dedifferentiating mature adipocytes supporting a potential role for these enzymes in adipose tissue remodeling and cell plasticity.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Temporal changes in gene expression profile during mature adipocyte dedifferentiation
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017-03-19) Guénard, Frédéric; Biron, Simon; Lapointe, Marc; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Côté, Julie Anne; Lessard, Julie.; Tchernof, André
    Objective. To characterize changes in gene expression profile during human mature adipocyte dedifferentiation in ceiling culture. Methods. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue samples were obtained from 4 participants paired for age and BMI. Isolated adipocytes were dedifferentiated in ceiling culture. Gene expression analysis at days 0, 4, 7, and 12 of the cultures was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 STvi arrays. Hierarchical clustering according to similarity of expression changes was used to identify overrepresented functions. Results. Four clusters gathered genes with similar expression between day 4 to day 7 but decreasing expression from day 7 to day 12. Most of these genes coded for proteins involved in adipocyte functions (LIPE, PLIN1, DGAT2, PNPLA2, ADIPOQ, CEBPA, LPL, FABP4, SCD, INSR, and LEP). Expression of several genes coding for proteins implicated in cellular proliferation and growth or cell cycle increased significantly from day 7 to day 12 (WNT5A, KITLG, and FGF5). Genes coding for extracellular matrix proteins were differentially expressed between days 0, 4, 7, and 12 (COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL6A3, MMP1, and TGFB1). Conclusion. Dedifferentiation is associated with downregulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in mature adipocyte functions and upregulation of genes involved in matrix remodeling, cellular development, and cell cycle.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Generation of human adipose stem cells through dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes in ceiling cultures
    (Verlag nicht ermittelbar, 2015-03-07) Lapointe, Marc; Biertho, Laurent; Nadeau, Mélanie; Côté, Julie Anne; Pelletier, Mélissa; Marceau, Simon; Lessard, Julie.; Tchernof, André
    Mature adipocytes have been recently shown to reverse their phenotype into fibroblast-like cells in vitro through a technique called ceiling culture. Mature adipocytes can also be isolated from fresh adipose tissue for depot-specific characterization of their function and metabolic properties. Here, we describe a well-established protocol to isolate mature adipocytes from adipose tissues using collagenase digestion, and subsequent steps to perform ceiling cultures. Briefly, adipose tissues are incubated in a Krebs-Ringer-Henseleit buffer containing collagenase to disrupt tissue matrix. Floating mature adipocytes are collected on the top surface of the buffer. Mature cells are plated in a T25-flask completely filled with media and incubated up-side down for a week. An alternative 6-well plate culture approach allows the characterization of adipocytes undergoing dedifferentiation. Adipocyte morphology drastically changes over time of culture. Immunofluorescence can be easily performed on slides cultivated in 6-well plate as demonstrated 65 by FABP4 immunofluorescence staining. FABP4 protein is present in mature adipocytes but down-regulated through dedifferentiation of fat cells. Mature adipocyte dedifferentiation may represent a new avenue for cell therapy and tissue engineering.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Characterization of functional methylomes by next-generation capture sequencing identifies novel disease-associated variants
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2015-02-28) Allum, Fiona; Guénard, Frédéric; Shao, Xiaojian; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Lessard, Julie.; Simon, Marie-Michelle; Tchernof, André; Busche, Stephan; Caron, Maxime; Lambourn, John; Tandre, Karolina; Hedman, Asa K.; Kwan, Tony; Ge, Bing; Rönnblom, Lars; McCarthy, Mark I.; Deloukas, Panos; Richmond, Todd; Burgess, Daniel; Spector, T. D. (Timothy David); Marceau, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Pastinen, Tomi; Grundberg, Elin
    Most genome-wide methylation studies (EWAS) of multifactorial disease traits use targetedarrays or enrichment methodologies preferentially covering CpG-dense regions, tocharacterize sufficiently large samples. To overcome this limitation, we present here a newcustomizable, cost-effective approach, methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-Seq), forsequencing functional methylomes, while simultaneously providing genetic variationinformation. To illustrate MCC-Seq, we use whole-genome bisulfite sequencing on adiposetissue (AT) samples and public databases to design AT-specific panels. We establish itsefficiency for high-density interrogation of methylome variability by systematic comparisonswith other approaches and demonstrate its applicability by identifying novel methylationvariation within enhancers strongly correlated to plasma triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol,including atCD36. Our more comprehensive AT panel assesses tissue methylation andgenotypes in parallel atB4 andB3 M sites, respectively. Our study demonstrates thatMCC-Seq provides comparable accuracy to alternative approaches but enables more efficientcataloguing of functional and disease-relevant epigenetic and genetic variants for large-scale EWAS.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Identification et caractérisation de cibles transcriptionnelles du facteur de transcription Androgen Induced-BZIP : un facteur impliqué dans le stress du réticulum endoplasmique
    (2010) Lessard, Julie.; Labrie, Claude
    Le facteur de transcription Androgen Induced-bZIP (AlbZIP) est un membre de la famille ATF/CREB, plus précisément de la sous-famille CREB3. Sa découverte remonte au début des années 2000 où sa régulation par les androgènes fut démontrée, de même que son expression abondante dans le tissu prostatique. À l'image des facteurs ATF/CREB, AlbZIP possède un domaine d'activation de la transcription en N-terminal, un domaine bZIP et un domaine transmembranaire lui permettant de s'ancrer dans la membrane du reticulum endoplasmique. La structure et la localisation d'AIbZIP suggèrent qu'il puisse être clivé par le mécanisme Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis (RIP) un mécanisme de clivage auquel sont soumis des facteurs ATF/CREB tels qu'ATF6. Ce clivage survient suite à un stress du reticulum endoplasmique (RE) qui peut être causé par différents stimuli qui perturbent l'homéostasie du RE. Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse visent l'identification de la fonction d'AIbZIP dans le stress du reticulum endoplasmique des cellules prostatiques cancéreuses. Mes objectifs étaient de découvrir des stimuli capables d'induire son clivage et d'identifier et de caractériser ses cibles transcriptionnelles suite à sa translocation au noyau. J'ai d'abord modifié le système d'expression inductible RheoSwitch et j'ai caractérisé son effet sur les cellules prostatiques cancéreuses LNCaP. Ce système s'est avéré être un outil efficace puisqu'il n'affecte pas le phénotype des LNCaP et il a été essentiel à la réalisation des travaux sur AlbZIP. J'ai ensuite mis en évidence le clivage d'AIbZIP par des agents qui causent une diminution de la concentration calcique au RE. Le système RheoSwitch modifié a permis de produire des cellules exprimant une forme active recombinante d'AIbZIP qui ont servi à la réalisation de micropuces Affymetrix. Ces puces ont permis l'identification des gènes cibles d'AIbZIP tel que le facteur de transcription CREB3. AlbZIP active l'expression de CREB3 par le biais d'éléments de réponse similiares à ERSE et CRE situés dans le promoteur du gène. Lors du traitement des cellules LNCaP avec l'ionophore de calcium A23187, on observe successivement le clivage d'AIbZIP, l'induction de l'expression de CREB3 et son clivage, ce qui suggère une chronologie dans l'activation des deux facteurs. La réponse au stress débute donc avec la forme active d'AIbZIP, suivie d'une co-existence des formes nucléaires d'AIbZIP et CREB3 pour se terminer par la présence de CREB3. CREB3 est en mesure d'activer sa propre transcription. Le stress causé par A23187 est en mesure d'activer AlbZIP et CREB3 qui se trouvent alors seuls ou simultanément au noyau. Il est donc possible qu'ils partagent des cibles communes, tout en ayant leurs cibles uniques, ce qui devra être élucidé pour clarifier leurs rôles respectifs dans la réponse au stress des LNCaP.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Temporal changes in gene expression profile during mature adipocyte dedifferentiation
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2017-03-19) Guénard, Frédéric; Biron, Simon; Lapointe, Marc; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Côté, Julie Anne; Lessard, Julie.; Tchernof, André
    Objective. To characterize changes in gene expression profile during human mature adipocyte dedifferentiation in ceiling culture. Methods. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue samples were obtained from 4 participants paired for age and BMI. Isolated adipocytes were dedifferentiated in ceiling culture. Gene expression analysis at days 0, 4, 7, and 12 of the cultures was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 STvi arrays. Hierarchical clustering according to similarity of expression changes was used to identify overrepresented functions. Results. Four clusters gathered genes with similar expression between day 4 to day 7 but decreasing expression from day 7 to day 12. Most of these genes coded for proteins involved in adipocyte functions (LIPE, PLIN1, DGAT2, PNPLA2, ADIPOQ, CEBPA, LPL, FABP4, SCD, INSR, and LEP). Expression of several genes coding for proteins implicated in cellular proliferation and growth or cell cycle increased significantly from day 7 to day 12 (WNT5A, KITLG, and FGF5). Genes coding for extracellular matrix proteins were differentially expressed between days 0, 4, 7, and 12 (COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL6A3, MMP1, and TGFB1). Conclusion. Dedifferentiation is associated with downregulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in mature adipocyte functions and upregulation of genes involved in matrix remodeling, cellular development, and cell cycle.