Personne : Beauregard L., Robert
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Université Laval. Département des sciences du bois et de la forêt
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- PublicationAccès libreMaleic anhydride treated wood : effects of drying time and esterification temperature on properties(Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2015-08-26) Essoua Essoua, Gatien Géraud; Landry, Véronic; Beauregard L., Robert; Blanchet, PierreTo improve technical performance of wood siding, treatment with maleic anhydride was applied. The effects on technical performance of drying time and esterification temperature parameters were analyzed. Wood samples of lodgepole pine and white pine were treated and tested. Results indicated that treatment improves technical performance of wood (dimensional stability, fungal degradation resistance, and accelerated aging). FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed spectra with peaks at 1750 to 1730 cm-1. These correspond to ester bonds formed between wood hydroxyl groups and MA carboxylic groups. SEM images indicate that the MA quantity in wood cavities was increased with decreasing esterification temperature. Weight percent gain (WPG) increased with decreasing time and temperature of esterification. Artificial aging and fungal degradation performances were monitored using FTIR analysis. Esterification temperature had no important effect on fungal degradation. Weight loss after fungal exposure of treated samples was not only due to fungal action but also due to evaporation of MA during the drying step. Regarding artificial aging, degradation of wood components and ester bonds were less for samples esterified at 180 °C than those esterified at 160 °C or 140 °C.
- PublicationRestreintProspects for appearance wood products ecodesign in the context of nonresidential applications(Forest Product Society, 2016-08-18) Beauregard L., Robert; Cobut, Aline; Blanchet, PierreAs environmental awareness grows, societal demand for more environmentally friendly products increases. Demand for environmental responsibility also reached the building material and construction sector. Green building has become more widespread over the past decade and can be considered a challenge for specifiers and building products manufacturers. Ecodesign, an application of the sustainable development concept, is one of the available tools to address this challenge. This article aims at proposing an ecodesign pathway for appearance wood products in the nonresidential building sector. Through extrapolating results from a previous interior wood door case study, it has been possible to obtain environmental profiles for the main segments of the appearance wood products family for nonresidential buildings. These profiles have allowed devising ecodesign solutions. Results show that for this whole family of products, raw materials are what cause the most environmental impacts, followed by shipping and end-of-life stages. Product component weight tends also to influence the environmental profile. Ecodesign solutions for composite-based products are strongly related to decreasing the composite component weight by design and remanufacturing. For solid wood–based products, ecodesign can be approached through remanufacturing or reclaiming, using locally certified sustainable wood. The use of hardwood waste may be available for energy purposes, but this may not be as relevant as reuse and recycle in the context of the province of Quebec energy grid mix.
- PublicationAccès libreReducing the environmental footprint of interior wood doors in non-residential buildings - part 2 : ecodesign(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015-05-25) Beauregard L., Robert; Cobut, Aline; Blanchet, PierreEcodesign is a concept that emerged few decades ago as a response to the larger concept of sustainable development. Multiple tools exist to address ecodesign. Life Cycle Assessment, a comprehensive, robust and recognized evaluation tool, enables to identify the product environmental profile. Based on previous LCA results on interior wood doors, this paper aims at proposing an ecodesign strategy based on the generation and evaluation of alternative scenarios. The three selected targets for environmental improvement are particleboard components, transportation and end-of-life. For the particleboard manufacturing, the use of adhesives based on bio-sourced resources was not very conclusive, except for the use of pine tannins in panel manufacture that showed promising results. Concerning transportation issues, switching from road to rail transportation, as well as having a local supplier, decreased the overall environmental impact of the door. The most notable alternative was the end-of-life recycling scenario. The reutilization of the door core in the door manufacturing process proved a great benefit due to the avoidance of new raw materials production. Developing services around door recovery and remanufacturing seems promising in reducing doors environmental impacts. This scenario would be readily viable and realistic.
- PublicationAccès libreThe environmental footprint of interior wood doors in non-residential buildings. part 1, Life cycle assessment(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015-04-30) Beauregard L., Robert; Cobut, Aline; Blanchet, PierreIntegrating environmental aspects into industrial practices has become a necessity. In fact, climate change and resource depletion have been established scientifically and can no more be neglected. Life Cycle Assessment is acknowledged to be an efficient tool to establish a product environmental profile and can be useful to businesses wishing to analyze their environmental record. Decreasing a building environmental footprint implies, among other considerations, a proper choice of building materials, both structural and architectural. A good avenue would be to select low environmental impact materials from cradle-to-grave. Architectural wooden doors are often specified in non-residential buildings in North America. However, only one Life Cycle Assessment has been carried out on wooden doors. This study explores the cradle-to-grave environmental profile of an interior wood door in a North American context. According to the results, the main contributor to the product impacts is the production of raw materials, especially the particleboard component, and their transportation to the manufacturing plant. The urea formaldehyde production is the main reason for particleboard impacts among the three damage categories, human health, climate change and resources, of IMPACT 2002+. The other life cycle stages that have a noticeable influence on the door environmental impacts are shipping and end-of-life. Transportation as a whole affected the system total environmental score. The current results could serve as a basis for ecodesign implementation.
- PublicationRestreintUsing life cycle thinking to analyze environmental labeling : the case of appearance wood products(Spinger, 2012-09-25) Beauregard L., Robert; Cobut, Aline; Blanchet, PierrePurpose: Growing public concern about the current state of our planet led to the creation of numerous regulations, standards, and certifications for the protection of humans and the environment. Ecolabels were defined for products such as cleaning products, paints, and many others. Wood building products are no exception. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing ecolabelling programs for appearance wood products in nonresidential applications and to evaluate them relatively to their effective role in environment protection or reduction of environment footprint. Methods: The research was conducted on the most common International Organization for Standardization (ISO) type I ecolabels in North America, the European Union, and Japan. Certification schemes applicable to appearance wood products for nonresidential applications were considered. In a life cycle assessment perspective, certification criteria were compared regarding their ability to consider and integrate environment impacts. Results and discussion: A wide range of ecolabels can apply to appearance wood products, from indoor air quality to wood from sustainable forest management. Moreover, it has been found that among all certification schemes studied, those integrating the whole life cycle were the most relevant. Conclusions: The remaining limitation of ISO type I ecolabels is the lack of environmental information enabling the differentiation between products bearing the same ecolabel. This can be overcome by ISO type III environmental product declarations. Thus, allowing a better understanding of the implications related with the use of wood products compared to other materials in the nonresidential building sector.
- PublicationRestreintDevelopment of a new engineered wood product for structural applications made from trembling aspen and paper birch(Forest Products Research Society, 2009-07-31) Beck, Katherina; Cloutier, Alain; Salenikovich, Alexander; Beauregard L., RobertThis study compared the bending performance of small (30 mm [1.2 in.] deep) laminated beams made from aspen oriented strand lumber (OSL), birch OSL, and commercial web-stock oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Aspen OSL beams had an average modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 9.89 GPa (1.43 × 10^sup 6^ psi) and an average modulus of rupture (MOR) of 52.0 MPa (7.54 × 10^sup 3^ psi). The average MOE for birch OSL was 10.6 GPa (1.54 × 10^sup 6^ psi), and the average MOR was 58.4 MPa (8.47 × 10^sup 3^ psi). OSB laminated beams reached less than half of these values (5.17 GPa [0.75 × 10^sup 6^ psi] and 26.4 MPa [3.83 × 10^sup 3^ psi], respectively). Large (120 mm [4.72 in.] deep) laminated OSB beams were also tested to track the depth effect. The average MOR of aspen and birch OSL, adjusted to 120 mm depth, was estimated to be 46.7 MPa (6.77 × 10^sup 3^ psi) and 52.6 MPa (7.63 × 10^sup 3^ psi), respectively. Comparisons with laminated strand lumber products currently on the Canadian market showed the mechanical properties of this new product to be competitive
- PublicationAccès librePine wood treated with a citric acid and glycerol mixture : biomaterial performance improved by a bio-byproduct(Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2016-02-17) Essoua Essoua, Gatien Géraud; Landry, Véronic; Beauregard L., Robert; Blanchet, PierreWood material is a good reservoir for biogenic carbon storage. The use of wood material for outdoor products such as siding in the building construction sector presents limits. These limits are bound to the nature of wood material (hygroscopic property and anatomical structure). They are responsible for the dimensional variation associated with moisture content variations. Fungal attacks and coating layers adhesion on wood surface, are other problems. This research investigated the feasibility of impregnation with environmentally friendly chemicals, i.e., a citric acid-glycerol mixture (CA-G). The anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), hardness, biodegradation, and coating adhesion tests were performed on softwood specimens. ASE results were up to 53%. The equilibrium moisture content of the treated specimens was less than half of the untreated ones. FTIR spectroscopy showed bands at 1720 to 1750 cm-1, indicating the presence of ester bonds, and scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the polymerization and condensation of treatment solution inside the wood structure. Hardness and decay resistance were increased; however, treatment reduces coating adhesion. In conclusion, CA-G represents a promising eco-responsible solution for improving the technical performance of outdoor wood products.
- PublicationAccès libreA conceptual model for forest naturalness assessment and application in Quebec’s boreal forest(M D P I AG, 2019-04-11) Côté, Sylvie; Bélanger, Louis; Thiffault, Évelyne; Beauregard L., Robert; Margni, ManueleResearch Highlights: To inform eco-designers in green building conception, we propose a conceptual model for the assessment of the impact of using wood on the quality of ecosystems. Background and Objectives: The proposed model allows the assessment of the quality of ecosystems at the landscape level based on the condition of the forest and the proportion of different practices to characterize precisely the forest management strategy. The evaluation provides a numerical index, which corresponds to a suitable format to inform decision-making support tools, such as life cycle analysis. Materials and Methods: Based on the concept of naturalness, the methodology considers five naturalness characteristics (landscape context, forest composition, structure, dead wood, and regeneration process) and relies on forest inventory maps and data. An area within the boreal black spruce-feathermoss ecological domain of Quebec (Canada) was used as a case study for the development of the methodology, designed to be easily exportable. Results: In 2012, the test area had a near-natural class (naturalness index NI = 0.717). Simulation of different management strategies over 70 years shows that, considering 17.9% of strict protected areas, the naturalness index would have lost one to two classes of naturalness (out of five classes), depending on the strategy applied for the regeneration (0.206 ≤ ΔNI ≤ 0.413). Without the preservation of the protected areas, the management strategies would have further reduced the naturalness (0.274 ≤ ΔNI ≤ 0.492). Apart from exotic species plantation, the most sensitive variables are the percentage of area in irregular, old, and closed forests at time zero and the percentage of area in closed forests, late successional species groups, and modified wetlands after 70 years. Conclusions: Despite the necessity of further model and parameter validation, the use of the index makes it possible to combine the effects of different forestry management strategies and practices into one alteration gradient.
- PublicationAccès libreEvaluation of environmental impacts of citric acid and glycerol outdoor softwood treatment : case-study(Elsevier, 2017-06-18) Essoua Essoua, Gatien Géraud; Landry, Véronic; Beauregard L., Robert; Blanchet, Pierre; Ben Amor, MouradOver the last few decades, wood modification has been performed to improve wood product technical performance. Using renewable based chemicals for wood modification is an innovative alternative to the non-renewable petrochemicals commonly used. However, it should be kept in mind that having the raw material from renewable sources does not guarantee zero environmental impacts. In this study, the treatment considered uses citric acid and glycerol mixture; two chemical products derived from renewable sources. In the residential building context of Quebec-Canada, the cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment for untreated and treated lodgepole pine wood siding was performed and compared. The results obtained show that the treated wood siding has higher environmental impacts than the untreated wood siding, in spite of its longer service life. This is partially caused by the high contribution of citric acid production used for treatment. The current service life expectancy of treated wood siding was estimated to be 2.8 times longer than the one of untreated wood siding based on standardized durability test and classification (AWPA E 10–12 and ASTM D 2017-05). Sensitivity analysis showed that life cycle impacts of treated wood siding become lower than those from untreated wood siding when service life expectancy reaches 5-times that of untreated wood siding. Life cycle assessment could be used for guidance in developing better treatments to improve their environmental impacts.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of strand geometry and wood species on strandboard mechanical properties(Society of Wood Science and Technology], 2009-07-01) Beck, Katherina; Cloutier, Alain; Salenikovich, Alexander; Beauregard L., RobertThis study compared the performance of strandboards made from trembling aspen, a lowdensity hardwood species, with strandboards made from paper birch, a medium-density hardwood species. Strands were cut into three different lengths (78, 105, and 142 mm) and two thicknesses (0.55 and 0.75 mm) to compare the impact of species, strand geometry, specific surface, and slenderness ratio. Internal bond (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR) for flatwise and edgewise bending, compressive strength, and stiffness were all determined. Both species performed equally well in IB (0.73 MPa for both species combined). The highest MOE and MOR values in flatwise and edgewise bending were obtained for long, thin strands and were significantly lower for birch than for aspen panels (flatwise: 13.6 GPa and 99.2 MPa for aspen and 12.1 GPa and 85.5 MPa for birch; edgewise: 13.5 GPa and 66.3 MPa for aspen and 13.2 GPa and 65.7 MPa for birch). Short aspen strands resulted in the highest compressive properties, slightly higher than those of short birch strands (aspen: compressive strength 10.4 MPa and stiffness 1.22 GPa; birch: 10.8 MPa and 2.25 GPa, respectively). Strand length must therefore be a compromise between the need for high bending properties provided by long strands and the need for high compressive properties provided by short strands.