Personne :
Dewailly, Éric

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Université Laval. Faculté de médecine
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Voici les éléments 1 - 7 sur 7
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Gene-diet interactions on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population
    (Cambridge University Press, 2012-07-05) Abdous, Belkacem; Rudkowska, Iwona; Hegele, Robert A.; Dewailly, Éric; Boiteau, Véronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Giguère, Yves.; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine
    The Inuit population is often described as being protected against CVD due to their traditional dietary patterns and their unique genetic background. The objective of the present study was to examine gene–diet interaction effects on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n 553) were analysed via regression models which included the following: genotypes for thirty-five known polymorphisms (SNP) from twenty genes related to lipid metabolism; dietary fat intake including total fat (TotFat) and saturated fat (SatFat) estimated from a FFQ; plasma lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TAG. The results demonstrate that allele frequencies were different in the Inuit population compared with the Caucasian population. Further, seven SNP (APOA1 − 75G/A (rs670), APOB XbAI (rs693), AGT M235T (rs699), LIPC 480C/T (rs1800588), APOA1 84T/C (rs5070), PPARG2 − 618C/G (rs10865710) and APOE 219G/T (rs405509)) in interaction with TotFat and SatFat were significantly associated with one or two plasma lipid parameters. Another four SNP (APOC3 3238C>G (rs5128), CETP I405V (rs5882), CYP1A1 A4889G (rs1048943) and ABCA1 Arg219Lys (rs2230806)) in interaction with either TotFat or SatFat intake were significantly associated with one plasma lipid variable. Further, an additive effect of these SNP in interaction with TotFat or SatFat intake was significantly associated with higher TC, LDL-C or TAG levels, as well as with lower HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene–diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Altered fine motor function at school age in inuit children exposed to PCBs, methylmercury, and lead
    (Pergamon, 2016-08-27) Boucher, Olivier; Ayotte, Pierre; Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.
    Background : Motor deficits have frequently been reported in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in adults. However, whether exposure to neurotoxic contaminants from environmental sources early in life is associated with neuromotor impairments has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead to motor function in school-age Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet. Methods : In a prospective study in Nunavik, children (mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on a battery of fine motor tasks, namely the Stanford-Binet Copying subtest (N = 262), the Santa Ana Form Board, and the Finger Tapping Test (N = 215). The relation of mercury (Hg; as an index of MeHg exposure), PCB congener 153 (PCB153), and lead concentrations in cord and current blood samples to task performance was examined using linear regression analyses. Results : After adjustment for potential confounders and control for the other contaminants, higher current PCB concentrations were associated with poorer Santa Ana Form Board and Finger Tapping performance. Results were virtually identical when PCB153 was replaced by other PCB congeners. Higher current Hg levels were independently associated with poorer Finger Tapping performance. Conclusions : This is the first prospective longitudinal study in children to provide evidence of neuromotor impairments associated with postnatal exposure to seafood contaminants from environmental sources. Fine motor speed appears particularly sensitive to the effects of postnatal PCB exposure, which is unusually high in this population. Results with postnatal MeHg are concordant with previous cross-sectional studies with children and adults.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Food insecurity and nutritional biomarkers in relation to stature in Inuit children from Nunavik
    (Canadian Public Health Association, 2014-07-22) Dallaire, Renée; Lucas, Michel; Ayotte, Pierre; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Pirkle, Catherine
    OBJECTIVES: Inuit in Canada experience alarming levels of food insecurity, but nutritional and physiological consequences are poorly documented, especially in school-age children. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of food insecurity to iron deficiency and stature in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Northern Quebec). METHODS: Food insecurity, iron deficiency, and stature were assessed in a cohort of children. Food insecurity was determined by interviewing the children’s mothers. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of food insecurity to iron deficiency and short stature. We defined short stature as a height in the lowest tertile for age and sex, based on Canadian growth charts. The relation of food insecurity to height (cm) was analyzed with a general linear model. Statistical models controlled for age, sex, normal/overweight/obese status, prenatal lead exposure and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyls exposure. RESULTS: Half of the children (49.7%, n=145) were food insecure, while one third were iron depleted, 12.6% had anaemia, and 8.7% had irondeficiency anaemia. The multivariate odds ratio of anaemia was 1.82 (95% CI: 0.97, 3.42, p=0.06) for food-insecure children. Prevalence of short stature was 18.7%. Food-insecure children were an average of 2 cm shorter (95% CI: -0.48, -3.17) than food-secure children (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: In this population, food-insecure children have greater burdens of nutritional deficiencies and slower linear growth. Considering the high prevalence of food insecurity among Inuit children in Nunavik, nutritional deficiencies and adverse effects on development should be carefully monitored.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Prenatal and early-life polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and behavior in Inuit preschoolers
    (Pergamon, 2015-03-18) Verner, Marc-André; Ayotte, Pierre; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Muckle, Gina; Desjardins, Justine; Dewailly, Éric; Cartier, Chloé
    Background: Whereas it is well established that prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can disrupt children's behavior, early postnatal exposure has received relatively little attention in environmental epidemiology. Objectives: To evaluate prenatal and postnatal exposures to PCB-153, a proxy of total PCB exposure, and their relation to inattention and activity in 5-year-old Inuits from the Cord Blood Monitoring Program. Methods: Prenatal exposure to PCBs was informed by cord plasma PCB-153 levels. We used a validated pharmacokinetic model to estimate monthly infants' levels across the first year of life. Inattention and activity were assessed by coding of video recordings of children undergoing fine motor testing. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal PCB-153 levels and inattention (n=97) and activity (n=98) at 5years of age. Results: Cord plasma PCB-153 was not associated with inattention and activity. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in estimated infant PCB-153 levels at 2months was associated with a 1.02% increase in the duration of inattention (95% CI: 0.04, 2.00). Statistical adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding slightly increased regression coefficients for postnatal level estimates, some of which became statistically significant for inattention (months: 2-4) and activity (months: 2-5). Conclusions: Our study adds to the growing evidence of postnatal windows of development during which children are more susceptible to neurotoxicants like PCBs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Omega-3 fatty acids, polymorphisms and lipid related cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Inuit population
    (BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-03-12) Abdous, Belkacem; Proust, Françoise; Rudkowska, Iwona; Hegele, Robert A.; Ouellette, Catherine; Boiteau, Véronique; Julien, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Giguère, Yves.; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine
    Background : Tissue concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and genetic variations are well-known factors which affect the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability of 20 candidate genes and red blood cells (RBCs) percentage of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a biomarker of dietary n-3 PUFA intake, modulate lipid related CVD risk factors in the Inuit population. Methods : Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n = 553) were analysed via multivariate regression models with 40 known polymorphisms, RBCs percentage of n-3 PUFA, and the interaction term to take into account the effect on plasma lipid and apolipoporotein levels. Results : Individuals being heterozygotes for CETP C-4502T (rs183130) or G-971A (rs4783961) together with higher n-3 PUFA had lower triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations compared to homozygotes for the minor allele. Further, effects of a stronger beneficial association between n-3 PUFA in RBCs and plasma lipid parameters- including lower total cholesterol (TC), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations- were associated with AGT M235T (rs699) TT genotype, CETP G-971A (rs4783961) AG genotype, T allele carriers of CETP C-4502T (rs183130), and T allele carriers of CETP Ile405Val (rs5882). In contrast, higher n-3 PUFA in RBCs were associated with adverse lipid profiles- including increased LDL-C, increased apolipoprotein B100 or decreased HDL-C concentrations- in G allele carriers of the APOA5 -3 A/G (rs651821), C allele carriers of APOA5 T-1131C (rs662799), G carriers of APOC3 SstI (rs5128) and G carriers of APOA4 Asn147Ser (rs5104). Conclusion : Overall, these results suggest that percentage of total n-3 PUFA of RBCs are associated with lipids related CVD risk factors conferred by genetic variations in the Inuit population.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec
    (2014-08-15) Lemire, Mélanie; Kwan, Michael K.H.; Anassour-Laouan Sidi, Elhadji; Ayotte, Pierre; Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Pirkle, Catherine
    Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n-3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood. The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n-3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (μg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species. In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (≥ 8 μg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Acylation stimulating protein is higher in Inuit from Nunavik compared to a southern Quebec population
    (International Association of Circumpolar Health Publishers, 2009-12-01) Smith, Jessica; Julien, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Cianflone, Katherine M.; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine
    Objectives. The Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec have a lower risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to Caucasian populations. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), which is involved in the storage of dietary fat, may play a role. The objective of the study was to determine plasma concentration of ASP in an Inuit and a southern Quebec Caucasian population. Study design. This is a cross-sectional study evaluating the relationship between ASP and dietary factors, such as retinol, whose intake is higher in the Inuit. As well, concentrations of ASP were evaluated in relationship to components of the metabolic syndrome. Methods. Medical history was collected via a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected. Results. ASP was significantly higher in both the Inuit men and women compared to Caucasian men (66.1±4.1 nM vs 27.5±2.5 nM, p<0.0001) and women (71.8±3.8 nM vs 29.4±1.3 nM, p<0.0001). In addition, ASP significantly correlated with total retinol (r=0.17, p=0.02) and free retinol (r=0.15, p=0.04) in Inuit men but not with other distinctive dietary markers such as omega-3 fatty acids. Conclusions. Inuit men and women have higher ASP which was unrelated to the number of risk factors for IHD that were present.